(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Alta California almanac and book of facts"

,•■':.• ..:V 



mm 



■Si 



■HH 

WsBm 

18m m 

I-, i 







CAUFORNIANA 




FORM 3427-4500-8-44 



^-0 




-"-^^i^*- 



' AhMMMMm 



CONTAINING 

A Review of the Industry of the Pacific Slope for 1880; 
a Chronological Tahle of the Notable Events of 

the Year; Returns of the Presidential Elections 

Lists of the Officials of the Federal, State and City 

Administrations, of Members of Congress and of the 

Legislatures and Census Statistics of the 

Pacific Slope; Etc., Etc. 

*•* 

Price, 




Five First Premiums. 



FAMILY 

COFFEE and SPICE 

MILLS. 
NO. 707 AND 709 SANSOME STREET 

Between Jackson and Pacific Street. San Francisco. 



These Mills have been in operation for twenty-six years, and are well 
known throughout the entire country of the Pacific Coast. The purity 
of the Coffee and Spices which they turn out has commended them to 
families and hotels, where their popularity is unbounded. They are 
neither drugged, sanded nor mixed, but are manufactured from the clear 
berry, without the addition of any foreign matter whatever. 

None but the choicest Manilla, Java and Costa itica Berries are 
used in the manufacture of the Chartres Coffee, millions of pounds of 
which have thus far found a ready market. The berries are all picked 
*nd cleaned before roasting. A steady increase of patronage has com- 
pelled an enlargement of the faeilifies of these Mills, and a considerable 
addition to the number of hands employed. 

The Coffee and Spices of these Mills have-taken first premiums at all 
the State and Mechanics' Fairs where they have been exhibited. They 
were awarded fir.~t premiums at the Mechanics' Pairs of 1865 and 1868, and 
thiv-e first premiums from the State Agricultural Fair of 1868. 

The proprietor, CHARLKS BERNARD, also conducts an extensive 
business in Cream of Tartar, Saleratus and Caroonate of Soda. 

Tliosa who have used the Cliartres Coffee prefer it to that which is 
rousted, ground and made into a drinking beverage in their own families. 

We have no traveling agents. All our goods are sold through regular 
dealers aud jobbers. 



Philadelphia Breweiy, 

Second Street, near Folsom, 



SAN FRANCISCO. 




The largest Brewery west^&Rocky Mountains 

ggpTke Beer is favorably known in all Hotels and Saloons 
on the Pacific Coast. 

The Quality of the Beer is unsurpassed by 
any other Brewery. 

JJmouijt of Beer sold i; 1880 will be about 47,000 bbls, 

fill WlIMIPi 

Proprietor. 



J. S. PHILLIPS & CO. 

BOOK BINDERS, BABER RULERS, 

BLANK BOOK MANUFACTUEERS, 

Amm wmnmwmmm$ 

509 CLAY STREET, 

SAN FRANCISCO. 



MUSIC MAGAZINES, 

Illustrated, and other Works in Numbers, bound in any desired 
style and at reasonable prices. 

BLANK BOOKS 

Ruled and Bound in any desired style from all the Best Brands 
of Paper in the market. 

LIBRARIES 

Bound in all the Best Styles of Morocco, Russia, Calf, etc.,.guar- 
anteed equal to London, Paris, or New York Binding, as we are 
practical workmen of large experience in this and Eastern cities. 

J. S. PHILLIPS & CO., 

509 Clay Street, S. F. 



ifa Caltforraa Almanac 



::* 



FOR THE YEAR 



1881. 



Edited by John S. Hittell. 



SAN FRANCISCO: 
F. Ma.cOREL.MSH A CO., PUBLISHERS "ALTA CALIFORNIA" NEWSPAPEB 

No. 529 Califobnia Stbeet. 



Vl 






Entered according to Act of Congross in the year 1SGS, by F. MacCbfxmsh 
& Co., in the Clerk's office of the District Court of the United States, for the 
Northern District of California. 



5591)2';' 



PREFACE. 

This is the fourteenth annual number of the Alta California 
Almanac and Year Book of Facts for the Pacific Slope — 
the only work of the kind published in our State in the English lan- 
guage. As in previous years, we give a brief record of the most 
notable events of the preceding twelve months, with special reference 
to the history of our Slope, comprehensive in information, and not 
conveniently accessible in any other form. Designed to be an epitome 
of the growth of our side of the continent, and more particularly of 
its leading State and city, the Almanac includes a review of agricul- 
tural, manufacturing and mining industries, the progress of population 
and immigration, and the number of inhabitants in all the Pacific 
States and Territories ; the rainfall of the last seven seasons in Cali- 
fornia and Nevada and of the last twenty-two years, by months, in 
San Francisco. The extent and causes of the business depression in 
California, and especially in San Francisco, are discussed seriously and 
judged impartially. The returns of the Presidential election; lists 
of the State officials, and of the military and naval forces of the Pacific 
Coast and Slope ; tables of postal and telegraphic charges, and 
census statistics, by counties, of California, Oregon and Washington 
are here placed within handy reach of the reader. 



INDEX. 



CALIFORNIA— Population of 20 

Finances of 73 

State Executive Officers of 81 

Senators of 84 

Assemblymen of 86 

Vote for President in 18S0 90 

CLIMATE OF PACIFIC SLOPE 23 

DEPRESSION OF BUSINESS 75 

FEDERAL TROOPS on Pacific Slope 87 

INDUSTRY of the Pacific Slope 35 

NOTABLE EVENTS 27 

OREGON— Population of 27 

POSTAGE— Rates of 24 

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION of 1880 91 

RAIN— Statistics of 20 years 23 

TELEGRAPHIC CHARGES 25 

WASHINGTON TERR.— Population of 27 



THE ANATOMY OF MAN'S BODY, 

A3 GOVERNED BY 

THE TWELVE CONSTELLATIONS, 

ACCORDING TO ANCIENT ASTROLOGY. 



THE TWELVE SIGNS OP THE ZODIAC. 



SPRING SIGNS. 

Aries, or Ram. 
Taurus, or Bull. 
Gemini, or Twina 



SUMMER SIGNS. 

25 Cancer, or Crab. 
$1 Leo, or Lion. 
iij£ Virgo, or Virgin. 



Arms. 

n 



Reins. 



Thighs. 

i 



Legs. 



Head and Face "p 




Neck. 



Breast. 



Bowels. 



Secrets. 



Knees. 



AUTUMN SIGNS. 

7. :£. Libra, or Balance. 
ttL Scorpio, or Scorpion. 



WINTER SIGNS. 

10. VJ Capricornus, or Goat. 

11. XV Aquarius, or Waterman. 



9. f Sagittarius, or Archer. | 12. X Pisces, or Fishes. 

The first six are called Northern Signs, and the other six Southern 
Signs. 



1st Month. 



JANUARY, 3881. 



31 Days. 



First Quarter 6 

Full Moon 15 



MOON'S PHASES, 

H. M. | D. H. M. 

11 54 Eve. I Third Quarter 23 00 «6 Morn 

3 18 Morn. | New Moon 29 04 36 Eve. 



Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday" 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.. . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.... 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday . . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday . 

27 [Thursday ... 

28 iFriday 

29 {Saturday 

SO ISunday 

31 IMoiKlay 



1 ? 


HIGH WATER. 


Sun Kisea. 


Sun Sets. 




" 


First. 


second. 




t 


1 31a 


11 57a 


7 16 


4 52 


6 40 


V5 


2 15 


45p 


7 16 


4 53 


7 55 




2 51 


1 36 


7 16 


4 54 


9 07 


CK 


3 24 


2 35 


7 16 


4 55 


10 14 




3 53 


3 45 


7 16 


4 56 


11 20 


X 


4 31 


4 58 


7 16 


4 57 


morn. 




5 18 


6 15 


7 15 


4 58 


25 


T 


6 11 


7 32 


7 15 


4 59 


1 26 




7 05 


8 51 


7 15 


5 00 


2 27 




7 54 


9 55 


7 15 


5 01 


3 25 


H 


8 40 


10 54 


7 15 


5 02 


4 21 




9 24 


11 43p 


7 14 


5 03 


5 12 


n 


10 05 




7 14 


5 04 


5 57 




25 


10 45a 


7 14 


5 05 


6 37 




58 


11 22a 


7 14 


5 06 


rises 


25 


1 24 


11 56a 


7 13 


5 07 


6 39 




1 47 


33p 


7 13 


5 08 


7 36 


SI 


2 10 


1 15 


7 13 


5 09 


8 34 




2 35 


2 03 


7 12 


5 10 


9 34 




3 01 


3 03 


7 12 


5 11 


10 34 


up 


3 34 


4 12 


7 11 


5 12 


11 38 




4 14 


5 26 


7 11 


5 13 


morn. 


i. 


5 03 


6 40 


7 10 


5 14 


43 




6 0J 


7 55 


7 10 


5 15 


1 49 


m, 


7 03 


9 15 


7 09 


5 16 


2 55 




8 06 


10 34 


7 08 


5 17 


4 02 


t 


9 06 


11 39p 


7 08 


5 18 


5 03 




10 02 




7 07 


5 19 


6 04 


VI 


32 


10 57a 


7 06 


5 21 


sets 




1 06 


11 45a 


7 05 


5 22 


6 40 


zz 


1 32a 


33p 


7 05 


5 23 


7 53 



" Who dares to spit tobacco juice on the car floor? " savagely asked 
a burly passenger on an Arizona train. " I dare," quietly responded a 
slender youth, suiting the action to the word. " You're the chap I'm: 
looking for," said th* ruffian, "give me a chaw." 



2d Month. 




FEBRUARY, 1881. 




28 Pays. 


First Quarter 


D. 

... ft 
...13 


moon's phases. 

4" 42 Eve. Third Quarter 

10 12 Eve. ! New Moon 


D. 

... 21 
....28 


H. M. 

11 1H Morn. 











1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

Ki 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

1!) 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 



Tuesday. . . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 
Wednesday. 
Thursday ... 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday.... 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 

Thursday... 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 



V 



m 



5 

1 i 

7 

1 S 

9 

10 





o 



55a 

23 

5S 

40 

•27 

18 

13 

09 

03 

54 

42 

26 

14 

39 

00 

'23 

46 

10 

44 

29 

24 

29 

36 

46 

54 

56 

25 

23a 



1 21 p 

2 25 

3 32 

4 -16 

6 01 

7 15 

8 29 

9 37 

10 33 

11 16 
11 47 p 



11 06a 
11 42a 

19p 

1 00 

1 51 

2 56 

4 09 

5 26 

6 44 

8 00 

9 J5 

10 18 

11 14 
11 55 p 



11 41/ 



Sun Rises. 


7 04 


7 03 


7 02 


7 01 


7 00 


6 59 


6 58 


6 57 


6 56 


6 55 


6 54 


6 53 


6 52 


6 51 


6 50 


6 49 


6 48 


6 47 


6 45 


6 44 


6 42 


6 41 


6 39 


6 38 


6 36 


6 35 


6 33 


6 32 



24 
25 
26 

29 
30 

31 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
4D 
41 
4 2 
43 
41 
45 
46 
47 
48 
5 49 



A Boston minister once told Wendell Phillips that as his business 
in life was to save the negroes, he ought to go to the South where 
they were, an,d do it. "That is worth thinking of." replied Phillips; 
"and what is your business in life?" "To save men from hell," 
replied the minister. "Then go there and atteud to your business," 
rejoined Phillips. 



3d Month. 






MARCH, 1881. 




31 Days. 


First Quarter 

Full Moon 


1>. 

.. 7 
..15 


H. 

11 
2 


moon's phases. 

M. 1 

48 Morn, Third Quarter.. 
24 Eve. | New Moon 


D. 

.. 22 


H. M. 
07 18 Eve. 
02 18 Eve. 



Day of 


Day of Week. 


2? 


HIGH WATER. 


Sun Rlsea. 


Sun Sets. 






Fl.et. 


Second. 




1 


Tuesday 


— 


43a 


25p 


6 31 


5 54 


7 47 


2 


Wednesday. 


¥ 


1 08 


1 16 


6 30 


5 55 


8 54 


3 


Thursday . . 




1 36 


2 17 


6 29 


5 56 


9 59 


4 


Friday 


T 


2 11 


3 25 


6 27 


5 57 


11 03 


6 


Saturday ... 




2 47 


4 36 


6 26 


5 58 


morn. 


6 


Sunday 


8 


3 34 


5 47 


6 25 


5 59 


03 


7 


Monday .... 




4 30 


6 56 


6 23 


6 00 


58 


8 


Tuesday . . . 




5 26 


7 59 


6 22 


6 01 


1 48 


9 


Wednesday. 


n 


6 24 


8 56 


6 21 


6 02 


2 31 


10 


Thursday.. . 




7 23 


9 45 


6 19 


6 03 


3 12 


11 


Friday 


25 


8 18 


10 26 


6 18 


6 04 


3 48 


12 


Saturday. . . 




9 10 


11 02 


6 16 


6 05 


4 19 


13 


Sunday — 




9 57 


11 31 


6 15 


6 06 


4 48 


14 


Monday .... 


SI 


10 44 


11 54 


6 13 


6 07 


5 15 


15 


Tuesday . . . 




11 28 




6 11 


6 08 


rises 


16 


Wednesday. 


»K 


15 


13 


6 09 


6 09 


7 22 


17 


Thursday . . 




34 


1 02 


6 08 


6 10 


8 26 


18 


Friday 


£= 


59 


1 59 


6 06 


6 11 


9 30 


19 


Saturday . . . 




1 31 


3 02 


6 05 


6 12 


10 37 


20 


Sunday 




2 09 


4 10 


6 03 


6 13 


11 42 


21 


Monday.. . . 


«l. 


2 56 


5 23 


6 02 


6 13 


morn. 


22 


Tuesday 




3 55 


6 35 


6 00 


6 14 


42 


23 


Wednesday. 


/ 


5 09 


7 47 


5 59 


6 15 


1 35 


24 


Thursday . . 




6 23 


8 52 


5 57 


6 16 


2 24 


25 


Friday 


>5 


7 35 


9 47 


5 56 


6 17 


3 09 


26 


Saturday . . . 




8 42 


10 32 


5 54 


6 18 


3 34 


27 


Sunday — 


OOr 


9 44 


11 06 


5 53 


6 18 


4 16 


28 


Monday 




10 42 


11 33 


5 51 


6 19 


4 50 


29 


Tuesday ... . 


X 


11 33 


11 57 


5 50 


6 20 


sets. 


30 


Wednesday. 






19 


5 48 


6 21 


7 40 


31 


Thursday.... 


T 


25a 


1 00p 


5 47 


5 22 


8 45 



" Doctor, what is to be done ? My daughter seems to be going 
blind, and slie is just getting ready for her wedding! " Let her go 
right on. It' anything will open her eyes, marriage will." 



4th Month. 



APRIL, 1881. 



30 Days. 



MOON 8 PIIASES. 



D. H. M. 1 

First Quarter 6 7 42 Morn. Third Quarter 


D. H. 

21 1 


it 

24 Morn 


Full Moon 14 3 36 Morn. 1 New Moon 


2S 2 


12 Morn' 


D»y o' 


Day of Week. 


tS 


HIGH WATER. 


Sun Biies. 


San Sets. 




Month 


Fl.st. 


Second. 




1 


Friday 


T 


51a 


2 02p 


5 45 


6 23 


9 46 


2 


Saturday 




1 27 


3 04 


5 44 


6 24 


10 45 


3 


Sunday 


« 


2 06 


4 09 


5 42 


6 25 


11 41 


4 


Monday 




2 55 


5 13 


5 41 


6 26 


morn. 


5 


Tuesday 


n 


3 48 


6 16 


5 39 


6 27 


26 


6 


Wednesday. 




4 48 


7 14 


5 38 


6 28 


1 08 


7 


Thursday ... 




5 46 


8 07 


5 36 


6 29 


1 45 


8 


Friday 


<*n 


6 46 


8 55 


5 35 


6 30 


2 18 


9 


Saturday 




7 44 


9 35 


5 33 


6 31 


2 48 


10 


Sunday 


9 


8 42 


10 08 


5 32 


6 32 


3 15 


11 


Monday 




9 36 


10 35 


5 30 


6 33 


3 42 


12 


Tuesday 


ftp 


10 28 


11 01 


5 29 


6 34 


4 10 


13 


Wednesday. 




11 20a 


11 24 


5 27 


6 35 


4 41 


14 


Thursday.... 




13p 


11 54 


5 26 


6 36 


rises. 


15 


Friday 


_*_ 




1 09 


5 24 


6 37 


8 25 


16 


Saturday 




27a 


2 08 


5 23 


6 38 


9 32 


17 


Sunday 


K 


1 02 


3 10 


5 22 


6 39 


10 35 


18 


Monday 


1 47 


4 14 


5 20 


6 40 


11 32 


19 


Tuesday. . . . 


f 


2 39 


5 17 


5 19 


6 41 


morn . 


20 


Wednesday. 




3 46 


6 19 


5 18 


6 41 


22 


21 


Thursday. . . 


VI 


5 00 


7 18 


5 16 


6 42 


1 05 


22 


Friday 




6 09 


8 12 


5 15 


6 43 


1 43 


23 


Saturday 


Z9S 


7 19 


9 00 


5 14 


6 44 


2 17 


24 


Sunday — 




8 29 


9 42 


5 12 


6 45 


2 49 


25 


Monday 


X 


9 38 


10 17 


5 11 


6 46 


3 20 


26 


Tuesday 




10 43 


10 49 


5 10 


6 46 


3 52 


27 


Wednesday. 




11 39a 


11 15 


5 08 


6 47 


4 25 


28 


Thursday . . 


T 


32p 


11 46 


5 07 


6 48 


sets. 


29 


Friday 






1 25 


5 06 


6 49 


8 32 


30 


Saturday . . . 


8 


18a 


2 18p 


5 05 


6 50 


9 28 



Well, Thomas. I was sorry to hear that you had been in trouble 
about chickens." " Yes, Mars Alec, but I done quit all dat now," said 
he, very penitentially. " How many did you take befors you stopped 1" 
" I tuk all she had." 





5tli Month. MAT, 1881. 31 Days. 




moon's phases. 




D. H. M. 1 D. H. M. 




First Quarter 6 (2 30 Morn. I Third Quarter '20 6 S4 Morn. 




Full M 














Day of 

Moutb. 

1 


Day of Week. 




HTGH WATER. 




Sun Sets. 


Moon Sets, 




First. 


Seo< nil. 






Sunday 


52a 


3 08 p 


5 04 


6 51 


10 18 




2 


Monday .... 


n 


1 33 


3 57 


5 03 


6 52 


11 02 




3 


Tuesday .... 




2 19 


4 45 


5 02 


(') 53 


11 3J 




4 


Wednesday. 




3 11 


5 33 


5 01 


6 54 


morn. 




5 


Thursday.. . 


25 


4 07 


6 17 


5 00 


6 55 


17 




6 


Friday 




5 06 


7 00 


4 59 


6 56 


48 




7 


Saturday . . . 


a 


6 05 


7 42 


4 58 


6 57 


1 15 




8 


Sunday .... 




7 09 


8 22 


4 56 


6 57 


1 42 i 




9 


Monday . . . 




8 13 


9 02 


4 55 


6 58 


2 09 




10 


Tuesday. . . . 


"K 


9 17 


9 41 


4 54 


6 59 


2 39 




11 


Wednesday. 




10 19 


10 16 


4 53 


7 00 


3 06 i 




12 


Thursday . . . 


_n. 


11 23a 


10 37 


4 52 


7 01 


3 45 




13 


Friday 




25 P 


11 20 


4 51 


7 02 


4 27 ! 




14 


Saturday . . . 


K 


1 20p 


11 58 


4 50 


7 03 


rises. 




15 


Sunday ... 






2 14 


4 49 


7 04 


9 23 ; 




16 


Monday 


t 


6 4Ja 


3 06 


4 48 


7 05 


10 17 


■ 


17 


Tuesday 




1 31 


3 58 


4 47 


7 06 


11 05 




18 


Wednesday . 


V5 


2 32 


4 51 


4 47 


7 07 


11 44 




19 


Thursday. . . 




3 41 


5 41 


4 46 


7 07 


morn. 




20 


Friday 


XX 


4 54 


6 31 


4 45 


7 08 


19 




21 


Saturday . , . 




6 48 


7 25 


4 44 


7 09 


51 




22 


Sunday 




7 16 


8 14 


4 44 


7 10 


1 22 




23 


Monday 


X 


8 26 


8 37 


4 43 


7 10 


1 53 




24 


Tuesday . . . 




9 37 


9 37 


4 42 


7 11 


2 23 




25 


Wednesday. 


Y 


10 45 


10 10 


4 42 


7 12 


2 59 




26 


Thursday. . . 




11 44a 


10 43 


4 41 


7 13 


3 36 




27 


Friday 


« 


38p 


11 15 


4 41 


7 13 


4 20 




28 


Saturday 




1 23p 


11 49 


4 40 


7 14 


sets. 




29 


Sunday 






2 06 


4 40 7 15 


5 56 




30 


Monday .... 


n 


6 25a 


2 45 


4 39 7 16 


9 38 | 




31 


1 Tuesday 




1 02a 


3 22 


4 39 17 16 


10 16 




.Sandy accepted the gude wife's invitation with the reservation, " If 




I'm spared." " Weel, we'll," said the lady, " if ye're dead, I'll not 




expect ye." 



Gth Month. JUNE, 1881. 30 Days. 




moon's phases. 




D. H. If. 1 D. H. M. 




FirstQunrter 4 7 6 Eve. 1 Third Quarter IS 01 00 Eve. 

Full Moon 11 10 42 Eve. I New Moon 26 05 48 Morn 




a»-of 
M .nth. 


IV, y rl Week. 


!i 


HTGH '.' 


Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


MOOIl Sets. 






Second, 




1 


Wednesday, 


55 


1 45a 


3 56 p 


4 39 


7 16 


10 48 




2 


Thursday . . 




2 34 


4 31 


3 39 


7 17 


11 17 




3 


Fi itlay 




3 29 


5 07 


2 38 


7 IS 


11 43 




4 


Saturday. . . 


a 


4 33 


5 48 


1 38 


7 18 


morn. 




5 


Sunday — 




5 33 


6 34 


38 


7 19 


10 




6 


Monday .... 


"i? 


6 41 


7 23 


9 38 


7 19 


37 




7 


Tuesday. . . . 




7 51 


8 09 


8 38 


7 20 


1 06 




8 


Wednesday. 


J^ 


9 04 


8 51 


6 37 


7 21 


1 40 




9 


Thursday. . . 




10 17 


9 30 


5 37 


7 21 


2 18 




10 


Friday 




11 23a 


10 14 


4 37 


7 22 


3 04 




11 


Saturday . . . 


"l 


25p 


10 58 


3 37 


7 22 


3 54 




12 


Sunday 




1 20p 


11 45 


2 37 


7 23 


rises. 




13 


Monday .... 


t 




2 08 


1 37 


7 23 


8 57 




14 


Tuesday . . . 




6 34a 


2 53 


37 


7 24 


9 40 




15 


Wednesday. 


V3 


1 24 


3 33 


9 37 


7 24 


10 19 




16 


Thursday . . 




2 21 


4 08 


8 37 


7 24 


10 53 




17 


Friday 


«* 


3 21 


5 50 


7 37 


7 24 


11 25 




18 


Saturday. . . 




4 30 


5 38 


7 37 


7 25 


11 56 




19 


Sunday — 


X 


5 56 


6 29 


6 37 


7 25 


morn. 




20 


Mondav. . . 




7 18 


7 26 


5 37 


7 25 


28 




21 


Tuesday . . . 


T 


8 35 


8 17 


4 38 


7 25 


1 03 




22 


Wednesday. 




9 45 


8 59 


4 38 


7 26 


1 37 




23 


Thursday . . 


« 


10 47 


9 35 


3 38 


7 26 


2 19 




24 


Fi iday 




11 40a 


10 12 


2 39 


7 26 


, 3 04 




25 


Saurday . . . 




28p 


10 49 


2 39 


7 26 


3 55 




2G 


Sunday 


nil l 09p 


11 26 


1 39 


7 26 


, sets. 




27 


Monday . . . 




1 44 


1 40 


7 26 


! 8 15 




28 


Tuesday . . . 


Zd 


01a 


2 16 


40 


7 26 


8 49 




29 


Wednesday. 




37 


2 44 


40 


7 26 


9 19 




30 


1 Thursday. . . 




1 18a 


3 09p 


9 41 


7 26 


9 47 




" Parson," said the deceased's second wife, "how soon can friends 




fii d each other in the next world?" "Doubtless at once," said the 




jr, od man. " Well," said she, sarcastically, " his first wife has got 




b m by, this time." 





7th Month. JULY, 1881. 31 Days. 


moon's phases. 




D H M 1 D H 


M 


First Quarter 4 09 00 Morn. Third Quarter 17 9 

Full Moon 11 6 00 Morn. I New Moon 25 9 


3 Ere. 


6 Eve. 


Dav of 
M nth. 


Day of Week 


33 


HIGH WATER. 


Sdd Rlset. 


Sou Seta 


Moon SeU. 


First. 


Second. 


1 


Friday 


SI 


2 08a 


3 34p 


4 41 


7 26 


10 14 


2 


Saturday . . . 




3 07 


4 05 


4 41 


7 26 


10 40 


3 


Sunday — 


m> 


4 10 


4 40 


4 42 


7 26 


11 07 


4 


Monday. . . . 




5 16 


5 26 


4 42 


7 25 


11 36 


5 


Tuesday . . . 




6 24 


6 21 


4 43 


7 25 


morn. 


6 


Wednesday. 


r£i 


7 38 


7 18 


4 43 


7 25 


12 


7 


Thursday . . 




8 52 


8 12 


4 44 


7 24 


53 


8 


Friday 


«L 


10 11 


9 01 


4 45 


7 24 


1 41 


9 


Saturday . . . 




11 21a 


9 49 


4 45 


7 23 


2 38 


10 


Sunday — 


/ 


16p 


10 40 


4 46 


7 23 


3 43 


11 


Monday . . . 




1 01p 


11 32 


4 46 


7 23 


rises. 


12 


Tuesday 


w 




1 45 


4 47 


7 22 


8 15 


13 


Wednesday. 




6 21a 


2 20 


4 48 


7 22 


8 52 


14 


Thursday . . 


%£ 


1 11 


2 49 


4 49 


7 21 


9 26 


15 


Friday 




2 10 


3 21 


4 50 


7 21 


9 58 


16 


Saturday . . . 


X 


3 20 


3 58 


4 50 


7 20 


10 30 


17 


Sunday — 




4 36 


4 40 


4 51 


7 19 


11 03 


18 


Monday . . . 


T 


5 53 


5 38 


4 52 


7 19 


11 39 


19 


Tuesday . . . 




7 11 


6 39 


4 53 


7 18 


morn. 


20 


Wednesday. 




8 25 


7 35 


4 54 


7 17 


18 


21 


Thursday . . 


8 


9 34 


8 24 


4 54 


7 17 


1 04 


22 


Friday 




10 39 


9 06 


4 55 


7 16 


1 51 


23 


Saturday .... 


n 


11 31a 


9 47 


4 56 


7 15 


2 43 


24 


Sunday — 




Up 


10 28 


4 56 


7 15 


3 38 


25 


Monday — 




40p 


11 06 


4 57 


7 14 


4 32 


26 


Tuesday. . . . 


95 


1 05p 


11 44 


4 58 


7 14 


sets. 


27 


Wednesday. 






1 26 


4 59 


7 13 


7 57 


28 


Thursday. . . 


a 


6 23a 


1 49 


5 00 


7 12 


8 16 


29 


Friday 




1 03 


2 12 


5 01 


7 12 


8 43 


30 


Saturday .... 




1 51 


2 36 


5 01 


7 11 


9 10 


31 


Sunday 


m 


2 46a 


3 09p 


5 02 


7 10 


9 39 


Prof. — What is a monarchy? Fresh. — A people govern 


ed by a 


king. Prof — Who would reign if the king should die? 


Fresh.— 


The queen. Prof.r- And if the queen should die? Fresh. — 1 


'he jack. 



8th Month. AUGUST, 1881. 


31 Days. 


moon's PHASES. 






D. H. M. 1 




D. H. M. 


First Quarter 2 OS 30 Eve. Third Quarter 


....16 08 42 Morn 


Full Moon 9 00 54 Eve. j New Moon 


....24 00 3D Eve. 


Day of 
Month. 

1 


Day of Week. 


If 


HIGH WATER. 


Sun Rises . 


Sun Sets. 


Moon Seta. 


Fhst. 


Second. 


Monday .... 


"R 


3 51a 


3 46p 


5 03 


7 00 


10 12 


2 


Tuesday .... 


-a. 


5 02 


4 33 


5 04 


7 08 


10 48 


3 


Wednesday. 




6 18 


5 29 


5 05 


7 07 


11 30 


4 


Thursday.. . 


"I. 


7 33 


6 34 


5 05 


5 05 


morn. 


•5 


Friday 




8 51 


7 40 


5 06 


7 04 


22 


6 


Saturday . . . 


/ 


10 05 


8 40 


5 07 


7 03 


1 22 


1 7 


Sunday — 




11 10a 


9 35 


5 08 


7 01 


2 31 


8 


Monday . . . 


V3 


03p 


10 28 


5 09 


7 00 


3 44 


9 


Tuesday. . . . 




39p 


11 22 


5 10 


6 59 


rises. 


10 


Wednesday. 


zx 




1 04 


5 11 


6 58 


7 22 


11 


Thursday . . . 




6 i3A 


1 34 


5 12 


6 56 


7 55 


12 


Friday 


¥ 


1 06 


2 02 


5 13 


6 55 


8 29 


13 


Saturday . . . 




! 2 06 


2 31 


5 14 


6 54 


9 02 


14 


Sunday — 




I 3 16 


3 10 


5 15 


6 53 


9 39 


15 


Monday. . . . 


Y 


4 32 


3 29 


5 16 


6 52 


10 17 


16 


Tuesday .... 




! 5 50 


4 54 


5 16 


6 51 


11 00 


17 


Wednesday . 


« 


7 03 


5 55 


5 17 


6 50 


11 47 


18 


Thursday. . . 




! 8 12 


6 54 


5 18 


6 4S 


morn. 


19 


Fridav 


n 


9 17 


7 49 


5 19 


6 47 


39 


20 


Saturday . . . 




10 13 


8 41 


5 20 


6 46 


1 33 


21 


Sunday 




10 29 


9 29 


5 20 


6 45 


2 28 


22 


Monday .... 


<*o 


11 30 


10 11 


5 21 


6 43 


3 24 


23 


Tuesday . . . 




11 54a 


10 53 


5 22 


6 42 


4 21 


24 


Wednesday. 


SI 


17 p 


11 32 


5 23 


6 40 


sets. 


25 


Thursday. . . 






38 


5 24 


6 39 


6 48 


26 


Fridav 




10a 


1 01 


5 25 


6 37 


7 15 


27 


Saturday 


*v 


52 


1 21 


5 26 


6 36 


7 45 


28 


Sunday — 




1 -42 


1 47 


5 26 


6 34 


8 14 


29 


Monday .... 


JV. 


2 38 


2 21 


5 27 


6 33 


8 48 


30 


Tuesday 




3 44 


3 04 


5 28 


6 31 


9 30 


31 


Wednesday. 




4 56a 


3 57p 


5 29 


6 30 


10 25 


My warning to all young poets would be 


the rema 


rk that, in Amer- 


ican literature generally, the power of ima 


»ery and 


expression is in 


large proportion to the power of thought. — 


/. 8. Mil 


I. 



9th Month. 




SEPTEMBER, 1881. 




30 Days. 




D. 

" 7 

.14 


moon's phases. 

H. M. 1 
5 48 Morn. New Moon 

8 24 Eve. First Quarter.... 

9 48 Eve. 1 


D. 

...23 
. 30 


H. M. 


Full Moon 

Third Quarter 


1 36 Eve. 



Thursday. . . , 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday ... 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday, 
Thursday.... 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday. . . . 
Wednesday. 
Thursday. . . 

Friday 

Saturday .... 
Sunday — 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday . . 
Friday 



T 



m 



HIGH WATER. 



11a 

30 

42 

47 

41 

20 

50 



08 
59 
59 
08 
21 
34 
42 
48 
45 
33 
10 
40 
04 
24 
47 
03 
51 
44 
42 
49 
57 
05a 



4 58p 

6 05 

7 13 

8 21 

9 26 

10 27 

11 19 
15 
41 



14 
47 
27 
14 
10 
11 

6 13 

7 13 

8 09 

9 01 

9 47 

10 31 

11 17 

01 

36 

1 06 

1 43 

2 27 

3 22 

4 32p 



Sun Rises. 


Sun Sets. 


Moon Sets. 


5 30 


6 28 


11 10 


5 31 


6 27 


morn. 


5 31 


6 26 


11 


5 32 


6 24 


1 24 


5 33 


6 23 


2 33 


5 34 


6 21 


3 47 


5 35 


6 20 


5 01 


5 35 


6 18 


rises. 


5 36 


6 17 


6 58 


5 37 


6 15 


7 35 


5 38 


6 13 


8 13 


5 39 


6 11 


8 55 


5 40 


6 10 


9 41 


5 41 


6 09 


10 33 


5 42 


6 07 


10 26 


5 43 


6 06 


morn. 


5 43 


6 04 


21 


5 44 


6 03 


1 17 


5 45 


6 01 


2 14 


5 46 


5 59 


3 10 


5 47 


5 58 


4 08 


5 47 


5 56 


5 06 


5 48 


5 55 


sets. 


5 49 


5 53 


6 18 


5 50 


5 51 


6 53 


5 51 


5 49 


7 31 


5 52 


5 48 


8 16 


5 53 


5 46 


9 08 


5 54 


5 44 


10 05 


5 55 


5 43 


11 11 



There is quite a field open to any young poet who should make his 
verses so lucid that one could understand them at the first reading. — 
Arthur Helps. 



10th Mouth. 



OCTOBER, 1881. 



31 Days. 



Full Moon 7 

Third Quarter 14 



MOON S PHASES. 

M. I 

42 Morn. 
12 Eve. 



M. 

18 Eve. 
36 Eve. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

IS 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

2(3 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 



Saturday.... 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 
Suuday ... 

Monday , 

Tuesday .... 
Wednesday 
Thursday... 

Friday 

Saturday.... 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday . . . 
Wednesday 
Thursday . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday. ... 
Wednesday 
Thursday .. 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Sunday 

Monday 



12 






1| 


HIGH WATER. 




. erand. 


t 


7 12a 


5 49p 


vy 


8 15 


7 02 




9 09 


8 14 


cw 


9 58 


9 17 




10 41 


10 16 


X 


11 13 

11 58 


11 11 


T 


0G 


01 




1 04 


30 




2 03 


1 02 


« 


3 06 


1 45 




4 09 


3 37 


n 


5 09 


3 34 




6 10 


4 34 




7 01 


5' 35 


<n> 


7 48 


6 34 




8 32 


7 32 


SI 


9 10 


8 28 




9 44 


9 24 




10 13 


10 19 


«K 


10 40 

11 04 


11 10p 


=£ 


01 


11 31a 




56 


01 p 


"1, 


1 51 


39 




2 48 


1 20 


t 


3 46 


2 11 




4 45 


3 12 


V? 


5 45 


4 20 




6 41 


5 24 




! 7 35a 


6 49p 



SUD - tS. Moon Set; 



6 01 
6 02 
6 03 
6 04 
6 05 
6 06 
6 07 
6 08 



5 02 



I wrote a sublime poem — "He's done his level best ' — and what 
credit did I ever get for it ? None. Bret Harte left it out of his Out- 
croppings. I never will write another poem. — Mark Twain. 



11th Month. 




NOVEMBER, 1881. 




30 Days. 


Full Moon 

Third Quarter 


D. 
.. 5 
.13 


moon's phases. 

H. M. ' 

05 48 Eve. New Moon 

02 48 Eve. | First Quarter 


D. 

...21 

...28 


H. M. 

8 6 Morn. 
3 48 Morn. 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 



Tuesday. . . . 
Wednesday 
Thursday . . . 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday ... 
Wednesday . 
Thursday ... 

Friday 

Saturday .... 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.. .. 

Friday 

Saturday 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 
Thursday.... 

Friday 

Saturday . . . 

Sunday 

Monday 

Tuesday 

Wednesday. 



r 



m 



"i 



Vj 



HTOH WATFR. 



23a 

09 

50 

25 

54 

17 

13 

05 

54 

42 

28 

14 

58 

39 

1'9 

59 

37 

17 

53 

26 

08 

07 

52 

41 

28 

15 

05 

57 

46 

33a 



8 01a 

9 12 

10 17 

11 19p 

11*24a 

11 58a 

38p 

1 21 

2 06 

2 56 

3 52 

4 53 

5 55 

6 58 

8 02 

9 05 

10 08 

11 10p 



10 58a 

11 31a 

13p 

1 04 

2 00 

3 01 

4 12 

5 27 

6 47 
8 04p 



6 26 

6 27 

6 28 

6 30 

6 31 

6 32 

6 33 

6 34 

6 35 

36 

38 

39' 

40 

41 

42 

43 



6 44 
6 45 
6 46 
6 47 
6 48 
6 49 
6 50 
6 51 
6 52 
6 53 
6 54 
6 55 
6 56 
6 57 



When you send a paper to a young lady, cut a small item out, no 
matter what. This insures the office the sale of another paper. She 
has got to see what it was, if it takes a week to find out. 



12th Month. 



DECEMBER, 1881. 



31 Day! 



Full Moon 

Third Quarter.. 



MOONS PHASES. 
M. I 1>. 

00 Morn. New Moon 20 

48 Mom. I First Quarter 27 



M. 

54Ev«. 
30 Eve. 



Day of 


Day of Week. 


4 a . 


HIGH 


WATER. 


Sud RUM. 


Sun Sets. 


Moon 9-U. 




ri.it. 


ftecoud 




1 


Thursday . . 


¥ 


8 18a 


9 17p 


6 58 


4 41 


2 51 


2 


Friday 


°f 


9 04 


10 23 


6 59 


4 41 


3 57 


3 


Saturday ... 




9 46 


11 24p 


7 uO 


4 40 


5 01 


4 


Sunday — 


« 


10 24 




7 00 


4 40 


6 03 


5 


Monday .... 




21 


11 01a 


7 01 


4 40 


raes 


6 


Tuesday . . . 




1 12 


11 35a 


7 02 


4 40 


5 48 


7 


Wednesday. 


n 


1 56 


12p 


7 03 


4 40 


6 45 


8 


Thursday . . . 




i 2 33 


50 


7 03 


4 40 


7 42 


9 


Friday 


25 


t 3 09 


1 34 


7 04 


4 41 


8 40 


10 


Saturday. . . 




1 3 40 


2 22 


7 05 


4 41 


9 37 


11 


Sunday — 




, 4 09 


3 20 


7 06 


4 41 


10 33 


12 


Monday .... 


SI 


4 45 


4 19 


7 06 


4 41 


11 29 


13 


Tuesday . . . 




5 26 


5 22 


7 07 


4 41 


morn. 


14 


Wednesday. 


"K 


6 13 


6 24 


7 08 


4 41 


25 


15 


Thursday . . 




7 05 


7 32 


7 09 


4 42 


1 25 


16 


Friday 




7 52 


8 44 


7 09 


4 42 


2 26 


17 


Saturday . . . 


& 


8 32 


9 56 


7 10 


4 42 


3 28 


IS Sunday 




9 08 


11 08p 


7 10 


4 42 


4 31 


19 I Monday.. . . n^ 


9 49 




7 11 


4 43 


5 34 


20 


Tuesday «. . . . 


0"7 


10 36a 


7 11 


4 43 


6 36 


21 


Wednesday . / 


1 00 


11 -21a 


7 12 


4 43 


sets. 


22 


Thursday . . 


1 46 


07p 


7 12 


4 44 


6 54 


23 


Friday V? 


2 27 


55 


7 13 


4 44 


8 07 


24 


Saturday . . . 


3 05 


1 51 


7 13 


4 45 


9 18 


25 Sunday — ~ 


3 39 


2 54 


7 14 


4 46 


10 27 


26 Monday 


4 18 


4 04 


7 14 


4 47 


11 35 


27 


Tuesday .... X 


5 03 


5 23 


7 15 


4 48 


morn. 


28 


Wednesday. 


5 54 


6 40 


7 15 


4 49 


42 


29 


Thursday.... T 


6 50 


8 00 


7 15 


4 50 


1 49 


30 


Friday 


7 44 


9 38 1 7 16 


4 51 


2 53 


31 


Saturday . . . 




8 33a 


10 30 


7 16 


4 52 


3 55 



A Boston young man married against the wishes of his parents, and 
in telling a friend how to break the news to them, said : " Tell them 
first that I am dead, and gently work up to the climax." 



ALT A CAL1F0ENIA ALMANAC. 



PACIFIC COAST CLIMATE. 



The average annual rain-fall is, at Sitka, 70 inches ; Olympia, 53 ; 
Portland, 45 ; Astoria, 80 ; Crescent City, 34 ; Humboldt Bay, 30 ; San 
Francisco, 23 ; Santa Barbara, 15 ; San Diego, 10 ; Grass Valley, 35 ; 
Sacramento, 20 ; Stockton, 17 ; Fort Yuma, 3 ; Cisco, 33 ; Virginia 
City, 6 ; Elko, 8 ; Salt Lake City, 10. The following figures show the 
rain-fall in inches and the number of rainy days at San Francisco in 
each season since September 1st, 1868, according to records kept by 
Charles G. Ewing. 



SEASON. 


INCHES. 


DAYS. 


SEASON. 


INCHES. 


DAYS. 


1868-69 


21.35 


55 


1874-75 


18.00 


70 


1869 70 


19.15 


56 


1875 76 


25 39 


72 


187017 


12.57 


52 


1876-77 


9.84 


40 


1871-72 


28.18 


71 


1877-78 


34.43 


76 


1872-73 


15.90 


59 


1878-79 


21.98 


64 


1873.74 


22.69 


89 


1879 80 


25 98 


75 



The average monthly rain-fall in inches, at San Francisco, of July 
is 0.02 ; of August, 0.03 ; of September, 0.15 ; of October, 0.66 ; of No 
vember, 2.50 ; of December, 4.50 ; of January, 5.10 ; of February, 3.90 ; 
of March, 3.40 ; of April, 2.60 ; of May, 0.60 ; of June, 0.10. 

The heaviest rains in the several months have been 0.21 inches in 
July and August ; 0.24 in September ; 2.88 in October ; 7.28 in Novem- 
ber ; 13 55 in December ; 24.36 in January ; 13.97 in February ; 6.30 in 
March ; 9.40 in April : 2.86 in May, and 1.23 in June. 

The mean temperature of January, in San Francisco, is 49° ; Vallejo» 
47° ; Sacramento, 45° ; Redding, 44° ; Visalia, 47° ; Humboldt Bay, 
40° ; Grass Valley, 27° ; Sonoma, 45° ; Monterey, 52° ; Los Angeles. 
52°; Santa Barbara, 53° ; San Diego, 51°; Fort Yuma, 59°; Naples, 46°; 
London. 37°; Dijon, 31°; Cincinnati, 30°; Astoria, 43°; Portland, 39°; 
the Dalles, 33°; Olympia, 38°; Keno, 30°; and Salt Lake City, 27°. 

Tbe mean temperature of July, in San Francisco, is 57 6 ; Vallejo> 
67°; Sacramento, 73°; Redding, 80°; Visalia, 85°; Humboldt Bay, 58° J 
Grass Valley, 63°; Sonoma, 66°; Monterey, 58°; Los Angeles, 75°; 
Santa Barbara, 73°; San Diego, 72°; Fort Yuma, 92°; Naples, 76°; 
London, 62°; Dijon, 70° Cincinnati, 74°; Astoria, 61°; Portland, 72°; 
the Dalles, 83°; Olympia, 64°; Reno, 75°; and Salt Lake City, 76°. 

The figures for the Dalles represent the lowlands of Eastern Oregon, 
Washington, and Southern Idaho, generally ; those for Reno, most of 
Nevada ; those for Salt Lake City, most of Utah ; and those for Fort 
Yuma, most of Southern Arizona. 

The climate of the middle coast of California is the most equable in 
the world outside the tropics, and the most favorable to continuous 
labor. „ In all parts of the State north, and in some south, of latitude 
35° the nights are cool, in summer as well as winter. 



s 
1 

02 

• 
•Jl 

6 

ai 

• o 
Os 

ccy 

So 

COS 

s§ 
!* 

si 

Is 

P 

Kg 

o « 

II 

il 

&« 

c 
'I 
o 

a> 

.d 
_Q 

i 

o 


— 

i 


Days 


1 lowt-on- m~icM : ; 1 fi 


1 


Days 


|., s= . =2£ „ ::: |„ 


Inches.. 


:!222SSS535m : : 


3 


Inches.. 


3SSS£8!;j|J 




Days 




eg 


Days.... 


1 « n( Neaga>go>c>~» : | s 


Inches .. 


3§5|g2gSgS : : 




Inches.. 


0.59 
(1.67 
(1.46 
0.62 
3.53 
4.4J 
7.34 
2.10 
2.10 
0.07 
0.03 

21.98 


S 


Days.... 


| ::SSS«— :::j@ 


1 


Days 




* 


Inches.. 


: :3!§2g8g§i8 : : : 


£ 


Inches.. 


0.02 
0.66 
1.52 
2 27 
10.56 
13.97 
4.01 
' 1.19 
0.21 
0.01 
0.01 


" 


i 

s 


Days. . . . 


!N ^^ 110 ^ c:c;c '* : ; ; 1 * 


| 


Days . . . 


|— «"—:-: |* 


Inches. . 


SS2SS2S3S : : :|S? 
6dTo2?isH= : : : I g> 


Inches.. 




-' 


1 


Days... 


—S— —*:! |g 


| 


Days 


| ^-s-s-a f:|f= 


Inches.. 


O © ■•£ 30 ^'h'soo' • • • -# 


Inches.. 


?sss?ssas§ . 


S 


1 


Days . . . 


- .»•« ;=-*« : : «| = 


3 


Days — 


« S -»c,c»e,»^ : : |o 


Inches.. 


3 :«-- :™ : :.-| 2 


Inches. . 


0.04 
2.85 
6.05 
0.36 
5.77 
0.22 
1.16 
0.08 
0.24 
1.23 

18.00 


1 


Days 




1 


Days ... 


i-^SB— : :| S 


Inches.. 


mmm \ \ \ 


5: 


Inches.. 


•aiH»«cDt«aDnoa . . 


S 


1 


Days.... 


-:SSS2=— ::| 8 


3 


Days. . . . 




Inches.. 


siassajils 


Inches.. 


15232513 Sit |S 


3 


Days. . . 


S B S MMnJ ' : :|g 


— 

IN 

- 


Days 




Inches.. 


.S83S£§5§2. : : 


l 


Inches. . 


:S53^SS2|S :1s 


3 


Days 




H 


Days... 


:— — 2«*» :: :JS 


Inches.. 


11.03 
(1.04 
7.28 
1.57 
1.6-1 

1.60 
3.99 
3.14 

0.09 

0.21 

22.46 


Inches . . 


i = S»SS = lw '■ 


1 


S 


Days.... 




! 


s 


Days ... 


: — H-- :-:|S 


Inches.. 




Inches. . 


:£r3 = ?ScSSS := : 1 2 


w 
W 

H 

Sz; 
o 


1. 
II 


= = ; 
; E = 


6 


1 r 




o 


a: 

a 

£ 
o 

§ 


aj 

if 


5 j> 6»& ■ • 


«^3 
>: 5 | -5<! 


1 



24 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANA G. 



RATES OF POSTAGE. 



Domestic Postage. — Letters, 3 cents for each half ounce ; drop 
letters, at an office where carriers distribute the letters, 2 cents for 
each half ounce; drop letters, at other offices, 1 cent for each half 
ounce; postal cards, 1 cent each ; newspapers, daily, or weekly, sent 
to regular subscribers, 2 cents a pound ; transient newspapers, mag- 
azines, books, proof sheets, corrected proof sheets, sheet music and 
maps, 1 cent for each two ounces ; lithographs, photographs, book 
manuscripts accompanied by proof sheet, seeds, roots, cuttings, flex- 
ible patterns' samples of minerals and merchandise, 1 cent for each 
ounce. All matter that does not pay letter rates should be enclosed 
in wrappers open at one end, or in bags or boxes unsealed, so that 
they can be readily examined. The fee for registration is 10 cents 
in addition to the regular rate of postage. The charge for a money 
order, not exceeding $15, is 10 cents ; not exceeding $30, 15 cents ; 
and 5 cents for each $10 additional. The highest sum for a money 
order is $50. Only three money orders may be sent by the same per- 
son to the same address in one day. 

The letter and newspaper postage to the Dominion of Canada in 
the same as to any point in the United States. Pre-payment, com- 
pulsory. Packages pay 10 cents each, and must not weigh more than 
8 ounces. 

Foreign Postage. — Uniform rates of postage are levied in the 
General Postal Union, including all Europe, Aspinwall, Panama, 
Cub), Jamaica, Mexico, Peru, Brazil, the Argentine Republic, the 
open ports of China, Japan, Fiji, Australia, (except New South Wales, 
Victoria and Queensland,) and the western parts of Nicaragua and 
Costa Rica. These rates are as follows, viz : 

For a prepaid letter, 5 cents for one-half ounce ; for unpaid letters 
received, 10 cents for one-half ounce ; for postal cards, 2 cents each; 
for newspapers, if not over four ounces in weight, 2 cents each. For 
books, other printed matter, patterns of merchandise; legal and com- 
mercial documents, pamphlets, music, visiting cards, photographs, 
catalogues, prospectuses, announcements, and notices of various 
kinds, whether printed, engraved or lithographed, 1 cent per each 
two ounces, but not less than 2 cents on any one package. For the 
registration fee on all correspondence 10 cents. No fee will be 
charged on return receipts for registered articles, in cases where 
such receipts are requested. 

The maximum weight for patterns of merchandise is fixed at 8| 
ounces, and the maximum weight of other articles (except letters) 
is 70 ounces. 

The following rates for letters not exceeding half an ounce, and 
newspapers not exceeding 4 ounces in weight, are only a few of the 
more important selected from the complex table kept at the Post Office 
f r places not in the Postal Union, The first price mentioned is that 
for a letter, and the second that for a newspaper. The Hawaiian Is- 
lands, 6 cents for letters and 2 cents for newspapers ; Bolivia, Equa- 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 25 



dor and Chile, 17 and 4 cents ; Cape of Good Hope and Natal, 15 and 
4 cents ; Victoria, New South Wales, New Zealand and Queensland, 
by direct mail from San Francisco, 12 and 2 cents ; French Colonies, 
including Tahiti and New Caledonia, 10 and 4 cents ; Guatemala, 10 
and 2 cents. 



TELEGRAPHIC CHARGES. 



The charges for telegraphic messages between points west of Salt 
Lake consist of two rates : the first sum being for the first ten words, 
and the second for every additional word ; and, generally, these 
charges are governed by the distances between the points, in an air 
line, without reference to the distance by the wires. If the distance 
is 25 miles, or less, the charges are 25 cents and 2 cents ; that is 25 
cents for the first 10 words or less, and 2 cents for each additional 
word. If the distance is between 25 and 50 miles, the charges are 
40 and 3 cents ; if between 50 and 100 miles, 50 and 3 cents ; if be- 
tween 100 and 200 miles, $1 and 7 cents ; if between 200 and 300 
miles, $1.25 and 8 cents ; and if more than 300 miles, $1.50 and 10 
cents. These are the general rates on which the table of charges are 
calculated, but there are exceptions which we have not here the 
space to explain ; and with these rates any person of intelligence can 
from a map, ascertain the approximate cost of any message, to be 
sent from one part of the Pacific Slope to another. We add the 
charges from San Francisco to certain prominent points, viz : to Val- 
lejo and San Jose ? 25 and 2 cents ; to Sacramento and Stockton, 40 
and 3 cents ; to Marysville, 50 and 3 cents ; to Visalia, 75 and 5 cents ; 
to Los Angeles, $1 and 7 cents ; to Yreka, $1 and 7 cents; to Vir- 
ginia City and Gold Hill, 75 and 5 cents ; to Portland, $1 and 7 cents; 
to Olympia, Hamilton, Salt Lake and Pioche, $1.50 and 10 cents. 

Telegrams sent from cities on the Pacific Slope to cities in Eastern 
States, with Western Union offices, are charged $2 for 10 words, 
and 13 cents for each additional word. 

The charge on telegrams to Great Britain, Ireland and France, 
from California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, Oregon, or Washington Ter- 
ritory, is 70 cents per word ; to Germany, 79 cents; to China, $2.75 ; to 
Yokohama, by Siberia, $3.05, or by Teheran, $3.70 ; to Australia, by 
Siberia, $4.75, or by Teheran, $3.35 ; to Kio Janeiro, $4.05 ; to Val- 
paraiso, $5.95 and to Lima, $7.20 per word. On telegrams from 
British Columbia, to the destinations mentioned in this paragraph, 
there is an additional charge of 15 cents per word. 

The chief telegraphic lines on the Pacific Slope are owned by the 
Western Union Telegraph Company. 

The Western Union Company sends money by telegraph ; but not 
in sums exceeding $100, to small offices. The charge for money 
transfers is one percent on the money sent, in addition to the cost of 
the telegram. Night messages, under conditions specified in the 
blanks, will be sent at half rates, except that no night message shall 
be less than 25 cents. 



26 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



STATISTICS OF THE NATIONAL CENSUS OF 1880. 



Population of California. 



Counties. 


Inhabitants. 
63,639 


Counties. 


Inhabitants. 
36,200 




539 

11,332 

19,025 

8,980 

13,362 

12,400 




5,593 


Amador 

Butte 


San Bernardino 

San Diego 


7,800 

8,620 

233,066 






24.323 




San Luis Obispo 

San Mateo 


9,064 


Bel Norte 


2,499 

10,647 


8,717 

, 9,522 




10,459 

15,515 

2,974 




35,113 


Humboldt 

Inyo 


Santa Cruz 

Shasta 


12,808 

9.700 






Siskiyou 


8,651 




3,329 

33,392 


18,774 






25,874 


Marin 


11,326 

4,340 


Stanislaus 

Sutter 

Tehama 

Trinity 


8.680 

5.212 






9,414 


Merced 


5,661 

11,270 


4,881 

11,361 




Tuolumne 

Ventura 

Yolo 

Yuba 

Total 


7,634 






5,088 


Napa 


12,804 


11,880 

11,540 


Placer 


14.278 


864,836 







The population of California in 1870 was 560,247, showing an in- 
crease of 304,589 in ten years. All the counties gained save Alpine, 
Mariposa and Tuolumne ; Ventura and Modoc have been organized, 
and Klamath county has been abolished since 1870. 



Population of Oregon. 



Counties. 


Inhabitants. 
4,631 


Counties. 
Linn . 


Inhabitants 
12,711 




6,354 

9,287 


14,801 






28,148 




6,025 

2,045 

4,849 

1,210 

9,560 

3,804 




6,513 






808 


Coos 

Curry 

Douglas 


Umatilla 


9,481 

6,703 




10.228 


Washington 


7,091 






7,950 






Total 




Lake 

Lane 


2,807 

9,576 


175,535 



The population of Oregon was 90,923 in 1870. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



27 



Population of Washington Territory. 



Counties. Inhabitants. 

Cbebalis 702 

Clal'ani : 628 

Clarke 5,459 

Cowlitz 1,797 

Columbia 7.C74 

Island 1,085 

Jefferson 1,725 

King.... 6,841 

Kitsap 2,006 

Klickitat..... 4,355 

Lewis 2,590 

Pacific 1,655 

Pierce 3,284 

Mason 600 



Counties. Inhabitants. 

Skamania 742 

Stevens 1,263 

Spokan , 4,328 

Snohomish 1,103 

San Juan 945 

Thurston 3.337 

Wahkiakum 1,617 

Whatcom 3,108 

Walla Walla 8,683 

Whitman 7,079 

Yakima 2,892 

Total 74,753 



The population of Washington was 11,594 in 1860, and 13,450 in 
1870. 



NOTABLE EVENTS OF THE YEAR. 



Dec. 



1. 1879. New municipal administration of San Francisco 

began, with I. S. Kalloch as Mayor. 

2. Attempt to kill the Czar, by blowiDg up a railroad train 

with dynamite; murderer blew up a baggage train. 

3. Louisiana adopted a new constitution. 

8. Announcement made that the Atchison, Topeka and Santa 
Fe Company had secured the franchise of the Atlantic 
and Pacific, for a railroad to the Pacific, on the 35th 
parallel. 

10. Gh W. McCrary, Secretary of War, appointed TJ. S. Circuit 

Judge, and Alexander Ramsay became Secretary of 
War. 

11. Cali ornian, monthly magazine, made its first appearance, 

bearing date January, 1880. 
13. French Chamber of Deputies elected Gambetta to be its 
President. 

Great earthquake in Guatemala; a volcanic island rose in 
Lak^ Ilopanffo; 600 shocks between December 21st 
and January 12th. 

The Spanish Legislature finally passed a bill to abolish 
slavery in Cuba. It provides that those who were 
slaves on the 20. h of December shall hereafter be pat- 
roned servants, and that the condition of servitude 
shall cease for all. absolutely at the end of eight years 
— tbat is, in December, 1887 ; but one-fourth of the 
patroned servants fhall be entirely emancipated in 
December, 1884, and the other fourths respectively in 
1885, 1886 and 1887. This rule applies to those pat- 



21 



24 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC 



rons who have four or more; those who have only 
three must emancipate one in each of the last three 
years ; those who have two, one in each of the last two 
years ; those who have one, in the last year. 

27. Unusual cold in California. 

28. Waddington Ministry in France succeeded by the Freycinet 

Cabinet. 

29. Submarine telegraphic cable, connecting South Africa with 

Suez, opened to business. 
31. Judgment of the State Supreme Court in favor of the 
Trustees of the Lick Estate, settling the litigation aris- 
ing from the claim of John H. Lick. 
Jan. 1. 1880. The New State Constitution of California went into 
full effect. 
8. Water Commissioners of San Francisco passed resolution 
to buy Lake Merced for $1,500,000. Their act after- 
wards declared void by the Supreme Court. 

8. Governor G. C. Perkins, head of a new State Administration 

of California, installed in office. 

9. Hurricane in northern part of the Willamette Valley, de- 

stroying some property. 
9. Snow-sheds crushed by snow on the Sierra Nevada ; trains 
delayed one day. 

10, H. E. Robinson, a Californian pioneer, died in Connecticut, 

leaving $40,000 for the relief of indigence in San 
Francisco. 

11. An eclipse of the sun, total along a belt 40 miles wide, ex- 

tending from near Monterey to Salt Lake, and partial 

elsewhere on the Slope. 
26. James R. Lowell confirmed as American Minister to Eng- 
land. 
26. Convention signed in Constantinople, by representatives of 

Great Britian and Turkey, for suppression of the slave 

trade. 
29. Decision of the Californian Supreme Court that bills in the 

Legislature must be read at length J;hree times in each 

house. 
Feb. 1. New session of the British Parliament opened. 

1. St. Ignatius' Church in San Francisco dedicated. About 

the same time, the college in the same building, the 

largest Catholic educational institution on the Pacific 

Slope, opened. The entire structure covers a block and 

cost $750,000. 
8. Daily mass-meetings and processions of the unemployed 

commenced, with communistic threats of murder and 

arson, continued for three weeks. 
10. Normal School building at San Jose burned. Its cost was 

$280,000. 
15. Geary street cable railroad opened to business. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



16. 1,200 Chinamen discharged by wool and jute factories of 

• San Francisco and Oakland. 

22. The San Francisco Board of Health, led by Mayor Kalloch, 
declared Chinatown a nuisance, in an order which was 
grossly illegal, but very effective as a stimulant to the 
communistic excitement among the rabble. 

24. Police force of San Francisco increased from 250 to 400 men. 

24. Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company solicited terminal 

grounds in San Francisco. 

25. Qen. Melikoff appointed Police Dictator of Russia. 

27. Daily parades of communists in San Francisco ceased, or- 
derly citizens having given notice that the abuse could 
no longer be tolerated 
In this month, great complaints were made of a famine in 
Ireland, and collections were commenced on the Slope, 
for the relief of the sufferers. The contributions closed 
in June, showed $13,700 sent through San Francisco 
and probably $5,p00 were not accounted for here. 
\x 6. France refused to surrender Hartmann the Nihilist, who 
tried to blow up the Czar with his special railroad 
train. 
8. The Citizens Protective Union of San Francisco organized 

to protect the city against communistic violence. 
8. Hurricane in the northern part of California; more de- 
structive at Napa and Willows than elsewhere. 

15. Vain attempt to negotiate a compromise between the com- 
munists and Citizens' Protective Union. Business 
men generally denounced the scheme as foolish and 
cowardly. On the 27th the Union declared that nego- 
tiators acted without authority. 

17. Lesseps arrived in San Francisco to gain support for his 

Panama canal project. 

21. Spanish Catholic Church on the corner of Mason and 

Broadway streets consecrated. 

22. The U. S. Circuit Court decided that the Act of the Cali- 

fornian Legislature forbidding the employment of Chi- 
nese by corporations is void. 

23. British Parliament prorogued. 

29. The workmen from the Italian and German sides met in 

the St. Gothard tunnel, having cut through the moun- 
tain. 

30. Election in San Francisco for fifteen freeholders to frame a 

city charter. Total vote, 30,667. Majority against the 
communists, 6,093. 

31. Election for House of Commons in British Kingdom, Lib- 

erals had 60 majority. 
3. Snow blockade for one day on the Sierra Nevada. 
5. Wieniawski, violinist, died. 



30 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



9. Angel], Prescott and Swift confirmed as Commissioners to 
obtain a modification of the Burlingame Treaty from 
China. 

11. ~\ Catholic Church on the corner of Church and Twenty- 
second streets, San Francisco, dedicated. 

12. Earthquake at Los Angeles. No serious damage done. 

16. Californian Legislature adjourned. 

16. Snow blockade on the Sierra Nevada, for one day. 

17. Superior Court sustained judgment of Police Court, sen- 

tencing Denis Kearny to the House of Correction for 
six months. 

18. Hurricane extending from Arkansas to Wisconsin ; 100 

persons killed and $1,000,000 damage to property. 
20. Snow blockade for three days on the Sierra Nevada. Flood 

in valleys ; 8,000 acres of reclaimed tule flooded. 
23. Charles de Young proprietor S. F. Chronicle, murdered by 

I. M. Kalloch, son of the Mayor of San Francisco. 
23. President Hayes signed the Act of Congress, providing 

for a World's Fair, in or near New York, in 1883. 
27. The British Conservative Cabinet, under Beaconsfield, was 

succeeded by Liberal Ministry under Gladstone. 
29. California Republican State Convention ^held. Declared 

preference for Blaine for President. 
May 1. The Sacramento Savings Bank closed. 

5. W. P. Daingerfield, presiding J udge of the Superior Court 

of San Francisco, died. L. D. Latimer was appointed 

his successor as Judge. 
8. The Narrow Gauge Bailroad to Santa [Cruz opened to 

traffic. 
11. Land riot near Hanford, Tulare county. Seven persons 

killed. 

17. H. S. Foote died, near Nashville, Tennessee. 

18. Agency of the Rothschilds in San Francisco closed. 

19. Horace Maynard appointed Postmaster General, succeeding 

J. M. Key, appointed U. S. Circuit Judge for East 
Tennessee. Mayiard confirmed June 2d. 

19. Californian Democratic State Convention. Majority of mem- 
bers expressed preference for Thurman. 

23. Railroad accident near Santa Cruz ; 14 killed and 40 
wounded. 

27. Paul Morrill, Surveyor of the Port, died. 

28. State Supreme Court, wrongfully co averting a writ of 

habeas corpus into a writ of error, released Denis 
Kearney, the communist, from the House of Correction. 
June 1. Grand Hotel in San Francisco clot-ed, and afterwards used 
as a branch of the Palace Hotel. 
8. J. A. Garfield nominated in Chicago for President, on the 
36th ballot, by the National Republican Convention, 
which had been for several days nearly equally di- 
vided between Grant and Blaine 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 31 



10. State Election in Oregon ; Republican victory. 

11. National Greenback Convention at Chicago. J. B. Weaver 
nominated for President. 

15. E. L. Sul.ivan confirmed as Collector of San Francisco, 

succeeding T. B. Shannon. 
15. Civil war broke out in the Argentine Republic ; ended two 

weeks later, by submission of Buenos Ayres. 
15. President Hayes vetoed the Election Marshal bill, because 

it did not provide for any effective check on frauds 

of local officials. 

18. John A. Sutter di-d in Washington. 

23. McClure Charier for San Francisco declared unconstitu- 
tional by the State Supreme Court. 

24. The Democratic National Convention at Cincinnati nom 
inated W. S. Hancock for President. 

25. A Conference of diplomatists representing the great Euro- 
pean powers at Berlin, fixed new boundaries for Greece 
and Montenegro, reducing Albania on both sides. 

In this month the subaqueous dress of Mr. Fleuss was ex- 
hibited in England, and accepted as a success. 
July 1. Bradlaugh, an avowed atheist, admitted into the British 
House of Commons, after an angry controversy. 

1. Official announcement that in 14 years and 10 months, a 
reduction of $820,000,000 had been made in the 
amount of the National debt, and of $71,000,000 in 
the annual amount of interest, and that immigrants 
in previous twelve months numbered 457,243. 

1. Jesuit schools closed in France. 

3. San Francisco communists quarrelled, and a majority being 
in favor of Hancock, expelled Kearney, who was for 
Weaver. 

3. German Parliament passed bill to amend the Falk (anti- 
Catholic) laws, making concessions to Catholics on five 
• out of twelve main provisions. 

12. Garfield's letter of acceptance published. 

13. Earthquake at the ^Philipine Islands; 11 persons killed 

and great damage to houses in Manila. 

14. This day the anniversary of the destruction of the Bastile, 

in 1789, and of national consolidation in 1790, celebrat- 
ed for the first time as the national holiday of France. 

19. J . B. Eads arrived in California as consulting engineer of 

the Debris Commission. 
19. Public Library of San Francisco opened to book borrowers. 

21. Twenty men drowned in Hudson River Tunnel. 

22. British Government recognized Abdurrahman Khan as j 

Ameer of Afghanistan. 
24. Maud S. trotted a mile in 2.13} at Chicago. 

26. British House of Lords rejected the Common's bill for re 

lief of Irish tenants. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



27. Carl Schurz arrived in San Francisco. 

27. General Burrows defeated by 10,000 Afghans, fifty miles 

from Candahar, losing 1,200 out of 2,400 men. 

28. Census of California, by counties, published. 
30. Hancock's letter of acceptance published. 

Aug. 1. French elections for Departmental Councillors. Republicans 
obtained control of 66 out of 89 Departments. 
2. State election in Alabama; Democratic majority of 90,000. 
7. Dr. Tanner ended a fast of 40 days in New York. 

10. Mechanics' Institute Fair opened, and closed Sept. 11th. 

Net recepts, $14,000. 

11. Republican State Convention. Presidential Electors and 

a new State Central Committee elected. 

12. St. Julien, a Californian horse, trotted a mile at Rochester 

in 2.11f. 
12. The Traylor Act, regulating salaries of teachers in San 
Francisco, declared unconstitutional. 

14. C. C. Moreno Prime Minister of Hawaii for one day. 

15. Adelaide Neilson di d in Paris. 

15. Cologne Cathedral finished, 631 years after its commence- 

ment. The tower, 529 feet high, highest work of hu- 
man art. 

16. ' The Masonic Templars, 20,000 of them, accompanied by 

about ten times as many visitors, held their Triennial 
" Conclave " in Chicago, and resolved to hold the next 
one in San Francisco. 

17. Fire in Eureka, Nevada ; loss, $1,000,000. 

18. Freycinet, French Prime Minister, made public speech, de- 

claring that France would not adopt a "policy of ad- 
venture " — meaning- that she would not make war to 
recover Alsace and Lorraine. 

18. Ole Bull died. 

21. Bill to give bakers a day of rest declared unconstitutional. 

24. A. J, Myer, head of U. S. Signal Service, died. m 

24. A syndicate of capitalists contracted in London to build the 

Canadian Pacific Railroad, subject to ratification of 
Canadian Parliament. 

25. Sentence of Sprague, to be hanged for the murder of T. 

W. Moore, in Ventura county, commuted to imprison- 
ment for life. 
28. St. Julien trotted a mile at Hartford in 211^. 
Sept. 1. Ayoob Khan defeated by Gen. Roberts, who entered Can- 
dahar. 

1. The International Maritime Code went into effect. 

2. Work commenced on Cape Cod Canal, to cost $8,000,000, 

and save 90 miles on the voyage from New York to 
Boston. , (J 
2. .The Transvaal Republic entered the Confederation of the 
British South African Colonies. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC- 



3. Discovery of a mine under the railroad near Livadia, to 
blow up the Czar. 

6. Arkansas State Election. Democratic majority, 60,000. 

7. Vermont election. 25,000 Republican majority. 

8. Charter election in San Francisco. Freeholder Charter de- 

feated by 4,057 for, and 18,675 against. 

9. President Hayes and party arrived in San Francisco, by the 

Central Pacific Railroad; went to Oregon overland, 
visited Eastern Oregon and Puget Sound, returned to 
San Francisco by water, and went East by way of the 
Southern Pacific, and Atcheson, Topeka and Santa Fe 
Railroads, having been absent from Washington two 
months. 

13. Maine State election. Greenback nominee for Governor, 
supported by Democrats, had a plurality. 

16. Californian Supreme Court declared the County Govern- 
ment bill void. 

18. A State tax of 64 cents on the $100 levied, to raise 
$4,200,000, whereas only $3,400,000 were requisite in 
1879. No decrease under the New Constitution. 

18. Maud S. trotted in 2.10f at Chicago. 

19. Freycinet, French Premier, resigned, because his speech 

on the 18th of August was considered disrespectful to 
Gambetta. 

20. Report of'Mr. Burnham, astronomer of the Lick Observa- 

tory, submitted to the San Francisco Academy of 
Sciences. Promised to be prepared to observe the next 
transit of Venus, with a second-rate telescope. 
20. Authors' Carnival opened in San Francisco, 

22. R. H. McDonald issued a circular offering to give $100,000 

to an Evangelical Christian University, in California, 
if others would contribute as much more. 

23. Decision of San Francisco Superior Court that the refusal 

to let Chinese have licenses to do business, is void. 

24. The London & San Francisco Bank reduced its capital 

from $3,000,000 to $2,100,000. 
28. Decision of California Supreme Court that there should be 
no election for general municipal ticket in San Fran- 
cisco, in November, 1880. 
In this month, the agitation in Ireland among tenants, 
against the landlords, and the frequent crimes of vio- 
lence committed against landlords and their agents, 
justified the remark of Gladstone that the country was 
"witbin a measurable distance of civil war." The 
Liberal majority in Parliament tried to restore order by 
the Irish Evictions Bill, the Hares and Rabbits Bill, and 
the Employers' Liability Bill, but did not succeed. 



34 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAO. 



In this month, Desire Charnay, a French explorer in Mex- 
ico, announced the discovery at Tula, of an ancient bur- 
ied city, as important to the archaeology of Mex- 
ico as Pompeii is to that of Italy. 
Oct. 2. The San Francisco Authors' Carnival closed after running 
twelve days. Net profits, $26,553. 

3. Typhoon in Japan ; 1,400 houses demolished in Tokio, and 

65 pen-ons killed. 

4. The San Francisco (evening) Examiner became a morning 

paper. 
6. Delaware State Election : Democratic majority 856. 
6. Georgia State Election : Democratic majority 40,000. 

12. The Revenue cutter Corwin arrived at San Francisco after 
an unsuccessful search for the Arctic exploring vessel 
Jeannette. 

12. Ohio State E ection : Republican majority. 

12. Indiana State Election : Republican majority. This was 
the pivotal State and its decision indicated the election 
oi (Jarfield, and the continuance of the Republicans in 
power at Washington for four years more. 

15. National four per cent, bonds rose in New York from 107 
to 109$ in consequence of the Republican victory in 
Indiana. 

18. Wade Hampton's challenge of John Sherman published. 
Provocation was Sherman's assertion that Hampton 
and other Democratic politician's profited by the Ku- 
Klux outrages. 

21. King of Greece, in his speech at the opening of the Na- 
tional Legislature, promised not to disband his army 
before the annexation of the territory promised by the 
Berlin Conference. 
Nov. 2. Presidential electioa. Garfield elected, getting the vote of 
every free State save New Jersey, Nevada and Cali- 
fornia. He lost the last State, and perhaps Nevada, be- 
cause of a forged letter, in which he was made to say 
that " Corporations should have the privilege of baying 
labor where they could get it cheapest — even if by im- 
porting Chinamen:" This letter was declared genuine 
by the National Democratic Committee. Kansas 
adopted a Constitutional amendment prohibiting the 
pale of distilled liquor. 

5. Mayor Kalloch, Sheriff Desmond and ex-Registrar Kaplan 

indicted on charges of malfeasance in office. 

6. Eruption of Mauna Loa in the Hawaiian Islands ; river of 

"lava 30 miles long, 200 feet wide and 20 feet deep. 

10. Northern Pacific Railroad crossed the Montana line in Yel- 

lowstone Valley. 

11. Dam to catch mining tailings of the Yuba River completed. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 35 



14. Moody and Sankey began revival meetings in San Fran- 
cisco. 

17. A treaty between Cbina and the United States, checking 
Chinese immigration, signed. 

20. An eruption of Alt. Vesuvius began. 

22. Fire in Imperial Mine at Gold Hill ; no lives lost. 

In this month there was a slight small pox epidemic in 
San Francisco. 



INDUSTRY OF THE PACIFIC SLOPE IN 1880. 

Population. — The following table shows the number of inhabitants 
in each of the American States and Territories west of the sum- 
mit of the Rocky Mountains, as ascertained by the National Census 
in June, 1880, and in 1870, with the percentage of increase in ten 
years: 

STATES, ETC. 1880. 1870. PRCT. 

California 864,836 560,247 55 

Oregon 175,535 90,923 94 

Utah 144,000 86,786 67 

Washington 74,753 23,955 210 

Nevada 68,500 42,491 61 

Arizona 41,580 9,658 350 

Idaho 30,000 14,999 200 

Totals 1,399,204 829,058 68 

The total gain is about 570,000 in the ten years, or an average of a 
little more than six per cent, annually. 

The statistics of the San Francisco Custom House and the Central 
Pacific Eailroad show that from June 30th, 1870, to September 30th, 
1880, 657,900 passengers arrived, and 412,500 departed, leaving a net 
gain of 245,400. The gain in the last half of 1870 was 2,200 ; in 
1871, 10,300; in 1872, 18,700; in 1873, 34,800; in 1874, 47.300; in 
1875, 65.600; in 1876, 35,400; in 1877, 18,300; in 1878. 10,200; in 
1879, 9,300, and in the first nine months of 1880 only 3,100. 

After deducting the 215,400 from the 570,000, we have 225,600 as 
the increase by the excess of births over deaths, and by immigration 
not reported in the annual statistics of the San Francisco Custom 
House and Central Pacific Railroad. These statistics make no mention 
of immigrants to Utah, Idaho and Eastern Nevada, from the East, by 
rail; to Arizona by land, or to Oregon and Washington by sea. If 
we allow 75,000 for all the immigrants omitted within ten years in our 
statistical tables, we shall have 150,000 as the increase of the excess 
of births over deaths, or nearly one and a half of one per cent, annual 
increase of the average population of the Slope for the ten years. 

The decrease in the immigration since the Communistic agitation 
in 1877 is indicative of the serious depression of business. 

From 1870 to 1876, inclusive, the annual gain of Chinese popula- 
tion, by immigration, averaged 7,000, and since 1877, 1,200. 



36 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



According to a school census taken in March, 1880, under authority 
of a State law, San Francisco had then 84,000 minors under 17 years 
of age. From 1871 to 1877 there was an average annual increase of 
4,200 in the number of these minors; from 1877 till 1880 there was an 
annual average increase of 1,300. These figures would indicate an 
increase of population since 1877, but the proportion of children in 
the city has increased more rapidly than that of adults for many 
years; and it is the opinion of many real estate agents that there has 
been a steady decline in the number of inhabitants since the com- 
munistic excitement began. The unoccupied houses and the fall of 
rents are insignificant. 

The number of new houses built in San Francisco was 828 in 1871, 
and in the succeeding years till 1877, 600, 671, 1359, 1389, 1600 and 
1250 respectively, as reported in Langley's Directory, the annual 
average being more than 1000. We have no recent statistics of the 
same kind from the same source, but we presume the annual average 
for the last three years is scarcely a third of that in the previous 
period. 

About three years ago we had six first-class hotels in San Francisco, 
with accommodations for 3350 guests, including the Palace, 1200; 
Occidental, 500; Baldwin, 450; Grand, 450; Cosmopolitan, 400, and 
Lick, 350. The Cosmopolitan is undergoing reconstruction to be used 
for commercial houses; the Grand has been converted into an append- 
age of the Palace, and the Lick is a lodging-house with a restaurant 
attached. Instead of having six, we have now only three first-class 
houses, conducted independently on the hotel plan. 

Wages. — The following table shows the average rate of wages paid 
for a week's work, with board for the housemaids, and without for the 
other classes of laborers in certain prominent occupations in Germany, 
England, Nev York and San Francisco: 

Occupations. Germany. England. New York. San Francisco 

Bricklayers $3A $8 $13>£ $21 

Masons 4M 8H 15 18 

Carpenters 4 8M 10>£ 15 

Gasfitters 3% VA 12 21 

Painters 4 7M 13 18 

Plasterers 3M 8 12J£ 18 

Plumbers 3>| 1% 15 21 

Blacksmiths 3% 8 12 18 

Bakers Z'A &A 614 14 

Cabinetmakers 4 VA H 13>£ 

Laborers 3 5 VA 9 

Housemaids 1 1% 1% 5 

Mechanics' Averages 3% VA \1 l A 18>£ 

The following are the weekly wages of housemaids in different 
classes in San Francisco, viz : Cooks, $7.50; waitresses, $5; chamber- 
maids, $5; general house servants, $3 to $5; assistants in housework, 
$2.50; nurses, $10; nurse girls, $2.50, and women day-workers, $9. 
Chinamen get about $5 per week. In consequence of the large wheat 
crop, and perhaps in consequence of the departure of many people for 
Oregon, Washington and Arizona, the demand for labor generally ex- 
ceeded the supply through the summer and autumn of 1880 in Cali- 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 37 



fornia. The staple articles of food are about 25 per cent, cheaper here 
than in New York or Germany. 

One of the troubles of Sau Francisco is, that the sick, destitute and 
unemployed of the Slope look upon it as a place where they can al- 
ways find help. The men who work for high wages through the 
summer in the agricultural districts come hither in the winter, think- 
ing that the worst that can befall them will be to work for one dollar 
a day in the Park. They could save more by staying in the country, 
taking up a homestead claim, clearing off the brush, planting fruit 
trees and vines, digging drains and ditches and erecting buildiugs ; 
but for the sake of the excitement and dissipations of metropolitan 
life, they waste their money in idleness and travel. They help to 
maintain the heresy that it is disgraceful to a white man to work for 
such wages as the farmers can afford to pay by the year. 

Geographical Divisions. — The Rocky Mountain chain, the most nota- 
ble orographic feature of the globe, extending 8500 miles, from the 
Arctic almost to the Antarctic Circle, and serving as the backbone of 
two continents, to separate the streams flowing toward the two great 
oceans, divides North America into its two main geographical divis- 
ions — the Atlantic and Pacific Slopes. 

The Pacific Slope of the United States, extending about 1200 miles 
from north to south, and 700 miles from east to west, with an area 
of 840,000 square miles, is divided into two main geographical divis- 
ions — the West Sierra region, comprising 200,000 square miles, and 
the East Sierra, 640,000. The East Sierra region, within the limits of 
the United States, includes about 200,000 square miles in the basin of 
the Upper Columbia ; 240,000 in the basin of the Colorado ; and 200- 
000 in the Enclosed American Basin, in which last the evaporation 
equals the rainfall, leaving no surplus of water to be sent to the sea, 
and the streams have their outlets in Great Salt, Utah, Pyramid, Tahoe, 
Walker, Mono, Honey, Humboldt, and other saline lakes. 

There is no navigable stream in the Enclosed Basin ; the Columbia 
can be navigated with profit about 300 miles above the Sierra chain ; 
and the Colorado about the same distance from its mouth, but the lat- 
ter river is of little use for commerce, as its navigable portion is bor- 
dered on each side by deserts — it flows across the course of trade in- 
stead of with it — and its mouth is accessible with difficulty from the 
ocean through the long, hot and barren-shored Gulf of California. In 
general terms, we may say that the East Sierra region of the Pacific 
Slope has no navigable water, aud depends for the development of its 
resources by being made accessible by railroads. 

The West Sierra region, being narrow, with a range of coast moun- 
tains along its shore, has few navigable streams and few good harbors, 
but it has good soil, extensive forests, valuable mineral deposits, a gen- 
ial climate, an excellent commercial situation, and about 1,100,000 
intelligent and industrious inhabitants, of whom more than half are 
settled in an area of 20,000 square miles near the Bay of San Fran- 
cisco. The greater part of the West Sierra region has not one white 
inhabitant on an average to the square mile. Western Washington and 



Oregon have a climate like that of England, the southernmost point 
of which just touches latitude 50° ; and California is the climate par 
allel of Spain, the southernmost point of which touches latitude 36° ; 
while our Slope has no equivalent, unless in the basin of the Upper 
Columbia, for France. The great advantages of climate, ocean front-, 
age, soil, forests and minerals have been supplemented by the accumu- 
lation of much wealth in the form of cities, railroads, wagon roads, 
irrigation ditches, mining ditches, farm improvements, and farm ani- 
mals. The railroads have an agg-egate length of 2000 miles, and, 
with the exception of a few uncompleted connections, make an admi- 
rable system of incalculable value to the future progress of the region. 

The East Sierra of the Pacific Slope, as compared to the West, was 
cursed with poverty by nature ; and yet is not so desolate, generally, 
as might be inferred after looking at it from the Central Pacific Rail- 
road, wbich crosses it where the enclosed basin is widest from east to 
west. The total population is less than 200,000, and most of these 
inhabitants are in districts covering less than 40,000 square miles, and 
more than half of the 640,000 miles of its area has not one white in- 
habitant for 20 square miles. There is relatively little accumulated 
wealth, for though the region has 1200 miles of railroad, most of this 
is in the deserts of the Humboldt and Colorado Valleys, and was built 
with special reference to the wants of traffic between the At antic and 
Pacific, and not to accommodate business along the way. The richest 
portions of the East Sierra region — Eastern Washington, North eastern 
Oregon, Northern Idaho, and Central and Northern Arizona — are not 
accessible by railroads, which are absolutely necessary to their devel- 
opment, and in the public interest should be built at the National 
expense, if they cannot be obtained otherwise. We cannot afford to 
leave these vast districts to the coyote and wild redskin. The main 
lines of road now wanted should cross from east to west near latitudes 
32, 35, 40 and 47, and run from the Mexican to the British lines near 
the meridians of Salt Lake and Virginia City. Some progress has 
been made on all these routes. That near the 40th parallel, the Cen- 
tral Union route, has its railroad finished. The Southern Pacific is 
showing much energy in advancing through Southern Arizona, and 
the Northern Pacific has determined to commence work immediately 
on the construction of 270 miles in Washington and Idaho, starting 
near Wallula and running north-eastward. The district which this 
road will open to settlement has a genial climate and fertile soil, and 
will attract many settlers. The winters are not so severe in latitude 
47° as on the Atlantic Slope in 40°. 

The settled portions of our Slope have an interest in the settlement 
of the other portions, and should be united in demanding from Con- 
gress such action as will gain that end, in such manner as to benefit 
the nation at large, and protect the rights of those poor and enter- 
prising men who are willing and anxious to carry civilization into the 
wilderness and the desert. 

California has 100,992,640 acres; Nevada, 71,737,600; Oregon, 60,- 
975,360; Washington, 44,796,160 ; Utah, 54,064,640 ; Arizona, 72,906,- 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



240 ; Idaho, 55.228,100, and Alaska 369,529,000. Portions of Montana, 
Wyoming, Colorado and New Mexico are west of the dividing summit 
of the Rocky Mountains, but these political divisions have their capi- 
tals and the bulk of their population on the Atlantic Slope. 

Chance for Settlers. — California is to-day, as it has been for more 
than thirty years, one of the best regions in the world tor the home 
of the poor, industrious and economical. It is not a good place just 
now for the investment of capital, though it would be if it were cer 
tain that the present Communistic State Constitution would soon be 
repealed. In the variety and richness of its undeveloped resources 
and in the attractiveness of its unoccupied lands, no other part or our 
continent approaches* it. The State has 40 000.000 acres of fertile, 
tillable land, of which only 5,000 10 are tilled; and 20,000 000 still 
belonging to the Government, are offered to settlers under the Na- 
tional Homestead law. True, much of this public tillable land is 
covered with chapparral, distant from the market, or not provided 
with the irrigating ditches, whch will at snme future time make it 
highly productive ; but there were objections as great, or much 
greater, to the lands of Ohio and Indiana, when they were offered to 
settlers, near the beginning of this century. Indeed, it may be said 
that as compared with the public lands in those States, these deserve 
to be called a paradise. 

Only 5.000.000 acres in our State are cultivated, only 10,000,000 are 
enclosed, only 30.000.000 have passed iuto private ownership, and 00,- 
000,000 are not tillable on account of being rocky, barren sand, above 
the snow line, or fit only for pasturage, out of a total of 100.000,000 
acres. The 20,000,000 acres of fertile, tillable, land offered to settler* 
under the National Homestead law are found in the foothills of the 
Sierra Nevada, in hills and valleys of the Coast Reckon, and the San 
Joaquin Valley, with a climate where snow and ice are almost un- 
known. 

A great outcry has been raised by demagogues about the evils of 
land monopoly in California, but it is absurd to complain of any great 
evil so long as the Government offers 20 000.000 acres of fertile till 
able soil to settlers for nothing. There are many large ranchos in 
California, but most of them are in dry portions of the State, where 
the only profitable occupation is the breeding of sheep or cows on 
wild pasture. The large ranchos. wholly, or even mainly, occupied 
for purposes of cultivation, are relatively few ; and half of them will 
not support a cow, in average seasons, for eight acres. Pasturage is 
the only use that can now be made of them. 

Rainfall — The following table represents the rainfall of the last 
season at stations which report to the Chief Engineer of the Central 
Pacific Kailroad : 



40 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 





. SEASONS. 




§ 


sis 


1 


T 


3 

T 


1 


8 


~r 


3 






*■ 



San Francisco. 

Niles 

liivermore 



Stockton 

Sacramento 

Rocklin 

Auburn 

Colfax .* 

Alta 

Emigrant Gap 

Summit 

Truckee 

Boca 

Reno . . 

Wadsworth 

Hot Springs 

Brown's 

Humboldt 

Winnemucca — 

Iron Point 

Battle Mountain .... 

Beowawe 

Oarlin 

Elko 

Halleck 

Wells 

Cedar 

Toano 

Terrace 

Promontory .... ... 

Corinne 

Ogden 

Marysville 

Chico 

Tehama 

Red Bluff 

Redding . ' 

Modesto 



ss s 
TIM 



Borden 

Tulare 

Delano 

Sumner 

Caliente 

Tehachapi 

Mojave 

Newhall 

Los Angeles..... 

Spadra 

Colton 

Banning 

WhiteWater... . 

Indio 

Mammoth Tank . 

Yuma 

Davis 

Fairfield 

South Vallejo... 
Calistoga ........ 

Napa . 

Woodland 

Dunnigan 

Williams 

Farmington 

Petaluma 

Mount Diablo .. 

San Mateo 

San Jose 

Gilroy 

Hollister 

Pajaro... 

Salinas 

Soledad 

Martinez 

Antioch 

Santa Cruz 

Anaheim 

lone 



The stations trom San Francisco to Truckee, inclusive, are on the 
main line of the Central Pacific in California, those from Boca to 
Toano in Nevada, and those from Terrace to Ogden in Utah — all on 
the same line ; those from Marysville to Bedding are on the Oregon 
branch of the Central Pacific ; those from Martinez to Williams on 
the Northern Bail way ; those from Davis to Napa on the California 
Pacific and its branches ; those from San Mateo to Soledad on the 
Northern Division of the Southern Pacific; those from Modesto to 
Borden on the Visalia branch of the Central Pacific ; those from Tu- 
lare to Mammoth Tank on the Southern Pacific in California ; that 
of Yuma on the Southern Pacific in Arizona; that of Anaheim 
on the San Diego Division of the Southern Pacific; that of 
Farmington on the Stockton and Copperopolis ; that of lone on the 
Amador branch of the Central Pacific; and those of Petaluma and 
Santa Cruz on roads not under the jurisdiction of Mr. Montague. 
The amount of rainfall is given in round inches at each place, pre- 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 41 

serving the value of the fractions as nearly as possible. The integer 
9 represents any fraction between 8.51 and 9.49. The snowfall is in- 
cluded, estimating a foot of fresh snow as equivalent to an inch of rain. 
The rainfall of the season was a little above the average in the 
middle and northern parts of the State, and less than the average in 
the neighborhood of Los Angeles At Indio, in the Colorado Desert, 
and at Yuma, on the bank of the river, there was less than half an 
inch of rain. In eight years we had one of drought, one of flood, two 
of scant rain, and four about the average. 

Cold Wjeather.—THe mildness of the winters in the valleys of Cal- 
ifornia — snow and ice in mid day being almost unknown, except in 
the shade— makes the old residents very sensitive when the thermom- 
eter falls below 82 degrees ; and they have had frequent occasion to 
feel such sensitiveness within the last three years. On the 27th of 
December, 1879, the lowest thermometrical figures reported were 18 
deg. for Columbia, 19 deg. for lone and Salinas, 24 deg. for Merced, 
25 deg. for Pleasant Valley, Marysville and Red Bluff, and 26 deg. for 
San Francisco and Woodland." This cold spell lasted four days, 
though the therm' meter was never less than 40 deg. at noon ; and 
was not equal in either duration or intensity to the ten days of cold 
from the 18th to the - 27th of December, 1878, when the mercury fell 
to 11 deg. at Kinasbury, 17 deg. at Marysville, 18 deg. at Santa Rosa, 
Colusa. Mt\ , and Pleasant Valley, 20 deg. at Healdsburg, Sonoma, 
and I '. .i • ~:.\ .o, 21 deg. at St. Helena, 22 deg. at Santa Clara and Clov 
erdal-; - I deg. at Shasta, BidwelFs Bar, New Castle and Auburn, 25 
deg. at San Bernardino, 26 deg. at Chinese Camp, and 27 deg. at 
San Francisco. 

According to Thomas Tennent's self registering thermometer, in the 
thirty years since July, 1849, the thermometer has not fallen to 32 
deg. in San Francisco more than four times in a year on an average ; 
but this thermometer was under cover, and a few feet from the 
ground, and so failed to descend to the freezing point perhaps a dozen 
times in the year when there was a slight frost on the ground. The 
coldest figures recorded by Mr. Tennent are 20 deg. on the 28th of 
December, 1867, and 29 deg. on the 28th of January, 1862 ; 25 deg. on 
January 20th, 1854, and 26 deg. on December 20th, 1870. The aver- 
age annual minimum is about 28 d g. 

In the first week of January, 1880, the thermometer went down to 
16 deg. at Nicasio ; to 2 deg. at the Calaveras Big Trees (4,500 feet 
above the sea); to 13 deg. below zero at Murphy's according to a letter 
in the Stockton Independent; but as Murphy's is not more than 
2,500 feet above the sea, there is probably a mistake .here. In Los 
Angeles the damage was less than in the previous year, but in one 
nursery 95,000 out of 100,000 young orange trees were killed to the 
ground and will grow from the root again. In San Diego County, 
many young trees were killed to the ground, 'and the bark on the 
limbs of some old trees split open. Even the fig trees in some cases 
were killed, and they are generally hardier than the orange. 



42 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Increased Taxation. — Tlie advocates of the New Constitution 
claimed that it would add to the tax list a hundre I or two hundred 
millions of dollars which had previously escaped assessment ; would 
greatly reduce the expenses of the State administration, acd would 
save fifty per cent, or more to the poor tax- payer. Not one of thepe 
predictions has been verified, except that the Assessor of San Fran- 
cisco has assessed $200,000,000 of corporation stock, representing the 
Central Pacific, Southern Pacific and other railroads, of the Comstock 
and other mines, and similar property out of San Francisco, or even 
oat of the State, and assessed where situated. The legality of this 
double assessment will be submitted to the Supreme Court, and if 
sustained there will be a new exodus of millionaires. The State 
assessment in 1880 amounts to $666,183,000, (exclusive of the $200,- 
000,000 of the stock assessment above mentioned), an increase over 1879 of 
$118,660,000 ; but much of this is obtained by double assessment and 
by unequal valuatious of certain classes of property. The purpose of 
the Communists who controlled the Convention was to impose double 
burdens on much of the property situated in the metropolis, but they 
were unable to find anything more under the New than had already 
been found under the Old Constitution, so the additional burden falls 
to a large extent on property in other counties, though mostly owned 
in San Francisco. 

Instead of reducing the expenses of the State Government, there is 
an increase The State property tax in 1879 was 62£ cents on the $100; 
and, as the total assessment was $547,000,000 the gross yield was 
about $3,400,000. In 1880 the tax was 64 cents on the $100— enough 
to yield $4,200,000 from the $666,000,000. The expenses of the State 
printing, the extensive litigation, the increase in the number of 
officials, and numerous minor effects of the New Constitution, have 
compelled an increase of the taxes. 

This, however, is a small evil as compared with the depression in 
business and in the market value of property. The incomes from 
labor and real estate have lallen off from 10 to 40 per cent, since the 
New Constitution was framed. The assessment is, relatively, 20 or 
30 per cent, higher than it was in 1877. In many places land can not 
be sold for the official valuation. There never was a year when the 
taxes fell so heavily upon the people of California, generally, as 1880; 
and, for much of the hardship, they must thank the New Constitution. 

The, Lick Bequests. — The litigation affecting the bequests of James 
Lick, for the benefit of the people of San Francisco and California 
has ended with a recognition of their validity. The following is a 
list of them in the order of their magnitude : 

$700,000 for an observatory on Mount Hamilton. 

$540,000 for a School of Mechanical Arts in San Francisco. 

$150,000 for free baths in San Francisco. 

$100,000 for an Old Ladies' Home in San Francisco. 

$100,000 for bronze statuary in the San Francisco City Hall. 

$60,000 for a bronze monument in .the Golden Gate Park. 



. I /. T. VCAL TFOR AY. 1 . 1 A \f. 1 YAC 43 



$25,000 each to the San Francisco Orphan Asylum, the San Fran ! 
cisco Ladies' and Relief Society and the S.m Jom Orphan Asylum. 

$10,000 each to the Mechanics' Institute, to buy scientific and in- 
dustrial books, and to the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to i 
Animals. ' $ -^ 

The residue of the estate, after the payment of the specific public ! 
and private bequests, is to be divided equ illy between the Society of 
California Pioneers and the Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, as • 
residuary legatees. 

The specific bequests for the public benefit — mostly for the j 
benefit of Sin Francisco, where James Lick accumulated his 
fortune — amount to $1,745,000. He also left over $175,000 
for relatives and family monuments, making a total, (including ' 
$385,000 to be paid to John H. Lick, son of the philanthropist) 
of about $2,200,000 to be obtained in cash from the estate 
before the residuary legatees will get anything. Since the beginning | 
of the litigation, for the continuance of which the Academy of Sciences i 
has been exclusively responsible, the value of the estate has been j 
greatly reduced by the depression in the real estate market, and seri- i 
ous doubts are entertained whether there will be any residue. The I 
trustees in charge of the Lick estate are William Sherman, E. B. j 
Mastick, C. M. Plum and G. Schonewald. The deeds by which Mr. i 
Lick gave his property to the^trustees for benevolent purposes may b* 
found in the Alta Almanacs for 1875, 1876 and 1877. 

Yield of Precious Metal. — Nevada has lost the leading place which , 
she has held for nine years among the bullion producing States. In j 
1873 her yield of gold' and silver rose to $23,000,000, and it advanced \ 
year by year till 1877, when it attained the high figure of $52,000,000, 
when it began to decline, and in 1880 it will probably be $18,000,000, 
about on a level with that of California, and possibly below that of 
Colorado. The following are the figures of California and Nevada in 
round numbers: 



1870 


California. 
•.100,000 


$16,000,000 
23,0. O.itOO 


i87a 

1877 


California. 

$19,000,000 

1S,000,000 

19,000,000 

ls.eoo.ooo 

18,000,000 




1871 

1872 

I8TO 

1*71 

1875 


2*1,000,000 

19.IXHI.IM) 

1S,(H)0.000 

,000,000 
.1)0,000 


35,000,000 

18,000,000 



The production for 1880 is merely conjectural. The tables of J. J. 
Valentini', of Wells, Fargo & Co., showed that Nevada produced, in 
1879, $22,000,000; California. $18,000,000; Colorado, $14,400,000; 
Utah, $5,400,000; Montana, $3,600,000; Dakota, $3,200,000; Idaho 
and Arizona each $200,000; Oregon and British Columbia each $100,- 
000 ; and Washington only $85,000. The year 1880 has made no se- 
rious change in the situation of the different mining districts of Cali- 
fornia. The hopes of a great development of mineral wealth in Bodie 
were not realized. No rich mine was exhausted or discovered. The 
supply of water for hydraulic mining was good. 



44 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



In Nevada, the yield of the Comstock lode continued to decrease, 
though nearly a million was spent monthly in explorations. The 
assertions made in 1879 about the abundance of low-grade ores that 
would be reduced with a profit within a few months, were not verified. 
The Sutro Tunnel has not been used for the extraction of ores. While 
the Comstock has declined, other districts have not arisen. Eureka 
has maintained its position ; White Pine, Pioche, Austin and Tusca- 
rora are quiet ; Mammoth has disappointed its friends. 

Mine Management. — Some of the Comstock mines are still managed 
as if the only persons entitled to know anything about them are the 
few who control the Board of Directors ; and as if these should attend 
to nothing save the levy of assessments and participation in deals, de- 
signed to plunder the credulous and excitable speculators. The 
superintendents generally are not mining engineers, and are incapable 
of making trustworthy reports on the condition of their mines ; and 
they are not in the habit of submitting clear and comprehensive re- 
ports of their work. From the rarity with which reports of examina- 
tions of mines by able and experienced mining engineers are published, 
a suspicion might be aroused that mining-engineering is not recog- 
nized in Nevada or San Framisco as a distinct and learned profession. 
We hear little of mining engineers, but much of mining experts, who, 
as a class, are noted, perhaps, as much for unveracity as for ignorance 
of mineralogy and metallurgy. The superintendent is, in many cases, 
the relative or servant of the magnate controlling the mine, appointed 
to aid in tricks to raise or depress the stock, and his incompetent and 
wasteful expenditure of money in the mine is subjected to no impar- 
tial and competent supervision. The results are that the mines are 
unprofitable, the mineral resources of the country are not developed, 
honest people are impoverished, and dishonest men are enriched. The 
keystone in the system is concealing the true owner of the stock under 
the name of a trustee. So long as Directors can buy and sell stock in 
secret, so long the average speculator in stocks will be swindled. 
When the Directors have to do tbeir dealing above board, the frauds 
which have hitherto been most pernicious and most common will soon 
cease. The Legislature of 1880 adopted an excellent bill, introduced 
by Mr. Felton, to check the evil, but it needs some additional provision 
to make it fully effective. There are, of course, persons who will not 
buy mining stocks unless they can hold them under the secrecy of a 
trustee, but the market can much better afford to lose these people 
than to remain under the present cloak of iniquity. 

Mining Investments. — San Francisco has shown more enterprise than 
judgti ent in undertaking to open new mines. In the hope of devel- 
oping the resources of the Slope, she has outrun science, engineering 
advice and discretion ; she has enriched others and done much to im- 
poverish herself. Within the last five years she has spent $65,000,- 
000 collected by assessments on mining stocks, for work that has not 
paid $5,000,000, and, with all its yield and present true value, is not 
worth $10,000,000. More than 80 per cent, of the expenditure has gone 
into mines that have never paid a dividend, and 10 per cent, more has 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



gone into other'raines in which the assessments have exceeded the 
dividends. The work was seldom done under the. advice of a skillful 
mining: engineer, and in many cases was driven ahead more for the 
purpose of Influencing the value of the stock, or keeping ap the 
rent of land, dwellings or mills near the mines, than with a definite 
idea of (retting dividends. The stock speculating puhlic would not 
pay a good price for shares, unless work was going ahead brisk ; an 
announcement that work would go slow, and that no assessments 
would be levied for six months or a year, caused a greater fall in 
stock than heavy assessments. So long as the dazzling light of the 
Bonanza dividends lasted, that system found favor ; but the time has 
come for less extravagant departure from common sense and com- 
mon prudence. 

These wild and mostly costly borings, in mines where no ore has 
been found after a lapse of twenty years, and in some claims where 
no respectable mining engineer ever said there was a reasonable 
prospect for finding any, has made a demand for skilled mining labor 
far in excess of the supply, and the price of that, as well as of un- 
skilled labor, has risen far beyond the ratio of other things. Out of 
100 men employed by a silver mine, about 60 are employed under- 
ground and others on the surface. Four-fifths of the underground 
men, and one-fifth of the surface-men may be skilled laborers, the 
others are not. As a general rule in California, Utah, Idaho, Color- 
ado, Montana and Oregon, the miners get $3 a day or less, the pay 
being in many places the same for surface as for underground labor. 
In the State of Nevada, however, and Bodie, the price is $1 a day, 
which may be a reasonable compensation in the underground work 
in most of the Gomstock mines, which are very deep and very hot. 
The danger and difficulty of the labor are much greater there than in 
the shallower and cooler mines. But throughout Nevada, the same 
schedule of rates applies, and the easy, sate and unskilled labor on 
the surface, is paid for at the same rate, though it does not deserve 
more than $3 a day. The eonseqnenoe of this high price of labor 
is that many mines are lying idle, or have been worked Ecu years for 
the exclusive benefit of the hired men, the owners getting nothing or 
even paring assessments. 

The Nevada Monthly says the number of mines at work on the 
Comstock ranged in the first six months in the year from 33 to 30; the 
number of men employed from 1763 in June, when the aggregate of 
their wages was $185,600, to 3033 in April, when they received 
000. The average of their earnings ranges fr »m $4 to $5 daily. The 
number of men employed in the different mines and shafts in June is 
thus given, viz: Alta.il: Andes, 12; Belcher (including Belcher and 
('rown Point shaft), 92; Benton Con., 16; Bullion Comb, shaft. 85; Con. 
Virginia, 140; California. 81; Con. Imperial, 43; Caledonia, '-20; C. a C. 
shaft. 103; Forman shaft, 75; Hale & Norcross, 84; Lady Washington, 
I; Mexican, 81; North Bonanza & Flowerv, 18; Overman, 57; Ophir, 
141; Quinn, 32; Savage, 105; Silver Hill. 67; Sierra Nevada. 120; 
Union Con., 144; Union shaft, 261; Utah, 71; Yellow Jacket, 184. 



46 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Comstock Assessments. — Silver mining companies have found very- 
rich diggings in San Francisco. The speculators have not faith of the 
kind that removes mountains, but they have that other kind, perhaps 
equally wonder ul, that throws millions into holes in the ground. 
The metropolis, even in these times of depression, collects about a mil- 
lion dollars a month to employ the miners and run the mills for grind- 
ing ores and lubricating throats in the land of the sage brush. In the 
first eleven months of 1880 the assessment roll of the San Francisco 
mining companies amounted to $12,000,000, a little less than for the 
corresponding periods of 1879 and 1878. The following figures show 
the total amounts of assessments collected by those Comstock compan- 
ies which have levied more than $100,000 each : 



Mines. Assessm'ts- 

Yellow Jacket $ 4,878,000 

Savage 4,809,000 

Sierra Nevada 4,200,000 

Bullion 3,850,000 

Hale& Norcross 3 409,000 

Gould & Curry 3,206,000 

Overman 3,201,000 

Ophir 2,988,000 

Crown Point 2,423,000 

Belcher 2,268,000 

Caledonia 1,925,000 

Mexican 1,382,(00 

Alta 1,371,000 

Julia 1,300,000 

Utah 1,040,000 

more 1,037,000 



Best & Belcher 

New York 

Union, 

N. Con. Virginia 

Succor 

Dayton 

Silver Hill 

Exchequer 

Knickerbocker.... 
Andes 



1,036,000 
908,000 
860,000 
820,000 
763,000 
750,000 
705,000 
630,000 
511,000 
487,000 



Mines. 



Assessm'ts 



Kossuth $ 437,000 

Con. Virginia 411,000 

Dardanelles 390,000 

Alpha 360,000 

Leviathan 330,000 

Trojan 315,000 

Confidence 312 000 

Kentuck 309,0(0 

Prospect...,. 280,000 

Seg. Belcher.... 270,000 

WellsFargo 228.000 

Lady Bryan 225,000 



Florid 

Potosi 

Benfon - 

North Bonanza 

Ward 

Keystone 

Phil Sheridan.., 

Chollar 

Mint 

North Carson... 

Occidental 

Flowery 



225,000 
224,000 
216,000 
200,000 
198,000 
175,000 
170,000 
168,000 
165,000 
145,( 00 
112,000 
100,000 



Total $58,723,0C0 

Eighteen other mines holding claims now valid in the Comstock 
district, not mentioned in the above list, have collected $735,000 in 
assessments. This list takes no account of assessment by companies 
which have been dissolved or superseded, such as those which formerly 
held the ground now owned by the Chollar, Potosi, Consolidated Vir- 
ginia, California and Consolidated Imperial mines. 

Comstock Dividends. — The following are the Comstock mines that 
have paid the dividends, vi z : 



Con. Virginia $ 42,930,000 

California 30,950,000 



Belcber. 
Crown Point.... 

Savage 

Gould & Curry. 
Yellow Jacket. 
Hale & Noicro: 
Oohir 



15,397,200 
11,688,000 
4.460,0C0 
3,825,000 
2,184,000 
1,598 000 
1,594,400 



Kentuck $ 1,252,000 

Con. Imperial 1,125,000 

Sierra Nevada 102,500 

Confidence 78,000 

Daney 56,000 

Succor 22,800 

Total 4125,342,900 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 47 



The Comstock mines, or mines in the Coinstock district mentioned 
in the list of the Stock Exchange, number 74, hut of these, three per- 
haps should be omitted, tor they have never levied an assessment or 
paid a dividend. Of the 71 live mines 14 have paid dividends and 70 
have levied assessments. '1 lie only mint that paid ;i dividend without 
levying an assessment is the California, Of the 14 mines which have 
paid dividends, the Confidence) Daney, Hale iV Norcroas, Ophir, Savage, 
Sierra Nevada, Bncoor and fellow Jacket have taken nnre from their 
stockholders than they have given back, leaving only six (viz., the 
Belcher, California, Con. Virginia, Crown Point, Gould & Curry and 
Iv-iru.'k) that have paid net dividends. The chance was 6 to 71, or 
about 1 in 12 in the richest silver niiniug district of the globe in its 
richest period. 

It is scarcely necessary to say that the chief purpose of running the 
05 unprofitable mines in the Comstock district, or at least the chief 
result, has been the profit, not of the proprietors, but of their servants. 

Disposal of Mineral Lands. — The interest of California demands the 
adoption of a policy of disposing of the mineral lands simitar to that 
of the Federal Homestead Law, in the agricultural regions, disposing 
of the land at little more than the cost of survey, in tracts of 80 or 
160 acres, the title not to be complete until after a long occupation 
which should not he less than ten years When this idea was first 
presented, it gave great offence to the miners generally for various 
reasons. It would reserve the mineral wwalth of the State for the 
permanent citizens of the State ; whereas, they generally want -d to 
"make their pile," and carry away the plunder. It was conceived in 
the interest of California, and that was not their interest. They had 
got used to the migratory, irresponsible mode of life ip the mines, and 
were unwilling to be tied down-. They were unwilling to be subjected 
to taxation, from which they had secured an unj.i t ami unconstitu- 
tional exemption. They followed political demagogues who de- 
nounced the prop>sed " sale of the mines " as a scheme to give the 
gold of the State to monopolists. 

The mining tramps and their subservient officials have had their 
way until incalculable dan i doneto the auriferous regions. 

The gold has been carried off, much of the s »il washed away, the tim- 
ber cut down, aid very little done in return. There are no rail- 
roads; the good wagon roads generally are subject t> heavy tolls; 
and the population has decreased steadily for more than a quarter of 
a century. There are in the mining counties nol hall so many voters 
as there were in 1814. The mining towns generally show sijrns of 
decay. Many of t teir b dldings are untenanted And the recline 
still continues. The Government is to blame. There are abundaut 
resources to attract settlers, but the law will not give them a fair 
chance. The public lauds are not off-red to the people on the same 
liberal terms as in th- j agricultural districts. In l^f><> an Act was 
•passed allowing individuals or companies to purchase mines, but only 
in small areas, at high prices, and und-^r oppressive restrictions ; 



48 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



whereas, nothing would be more conducive to the prosperity of the 
mining counties of California than the abolition of distinction be 
tween agricultural and mineral lands, and the reservation of all for 
ten-year settlers. 

One of the great drawbacks of the mining industry at present is the 
multitude of old mining claims, which, though long neglected, 
and practically abandoned, may yet be revived at any moment, if 
some new comer should prove their value. Transfer the mineral lands 
in tracts of 160 acres, to actual occupants, subject to vested rights, 
with the condition that all claims not worked in good faith, sur- 
veyed, accurately described, and recorded in the County Recorder's 
office, shall be considered abandoned. The opportunity to become 
owner in fee simple of 160 acres of mining land now neglected, would 
attract many thousand settlers to the mining counties, and be a great 
ultimate, as well as immediate, benefit to the State. 

Ihe same policy would be advantageous in Oregon, Idaho, and the 
placer regions of -Arizona; but would not apply equally well in Ne- 
vada and Utah, where the mineral wealth is almost exclusively in 
rock formations. Perhaps it would be sufficient to commence the 
experiment in a small district, so that if the first experience should 
proveunsatifactory.it could be abandoned with little inconvenience. 

Whale Fishery. — The American sea fisheries in the North Pacific are 
in their infancy, excepting whaling, which is in its decline. The in- 
troduction of petroleum, the consequent fall in the p ice of whale-oil, 
the destruction of whalers by the Rebel cruiser Shenandoah, the loss 
of many vessels in the Arctic ice-fields in 1871 and 1876, and the de- 
crease in the number of whales, have contributed to reduce the Pacific 
whaling fleet from 690 vessels in 1855, to 40 in 1879. Of these only 
18 are now in the North Pacific, and recently they have made their 
rendezvous in San Francisco harbor, whereas, formerly, Honolulu was 
the port where they discharged cargo, refitted, and spent the winter. 
The y employ about 700 men, and the average catch may be set down 
as 15,000 barrels of oil and seventy tons of whale-bone. The whales 
are scarce, and shy now south of Behring Straits, and most of the 
vessels venture into the Arctic Sea. In a fair season a vessel will take 
five whales — the Northern Right whale yielding 125 barrels, and the 
Arctic 90 of oil, and each about 1,500 pounds of bone. If the whales 
are not found, the vessel frequently devotes itself to the walrus, each 
Of which givs twenty gallons of oil and five pounds of ivory, but 
three out of four killed are los 1 ; and as they are the chief dependence 
of the Esquimaux for subsistence, some whaling masters will not kill 
them so long as there is any hope of finding whales. The introduc- 
tion of an improved bomb-lance gun will probably make the business 
less dangerous and more profitable. 

There are half a dozen whaling stations on the coast of California, 
where a lookout is kept on shore and when notice is given that a 
whale is in sight, men put off in row boats for the prize. There are 
twenty-five men at Punta Banda, and twelve at Santo Tomas, in 
Lower California, and ten at Ballast Point in the American Territory, 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 49 



all belonging to San Diego; a company at Monterey; one of twenty- 
flve men at Pigeon Point; and one or two in Mendocino county. Most 
of the whales taken are the California graybacks, which are neither 
rich in oil nor easily taken. Some seasons more than half <-f those 
kilhd are lost. They migrate when fat to the southward from No- 
vember to February, keeping near the land, and to the northward 
from May to October, when lean; running a little farther out. 

In November 1879, 19 whale ii-diing vessels arrived in San Fran- 
cisco bringing in 50 tons of whalebone, 25,000 bbls of oil and 13 tons 
of walrus ivory as the proceeds of their season's work. In November, 
1880, the catch of the season reported by San Francisco vessels, was 
about 6 tons of ivory, 90 tons of bone and 15,000 barrels of oil. 

Cod Fishery. — San Francisco had thirteen cod-fishing vessels, with 
250 men, in 1879. Two of the vessels measure between 300 and 400 
tons ; one between 200 and 300 ; six between 100 and 200, and three 
under 100 tons. The business fluctuates with the demand for the 
fish, and the number of vessels has never been the same for two con- 
secutive years. There were twenty-two in 1870, and only five in 1875. 
The total catch was 2,000 tons in 1870; 1,300 in 1871; 550 in 1872; 
850 in 1873 ; 560 in 1874 ; 550 in 1875 ; 1,200 in 1870 ; 1,300 in 1877 ; 
1,500 in 1878, 2,500 in 1879 and 2,000 in 1880. The cod-fishing firms 
are Lynde & Hough, McColliam & Co., N. Bichard & Co., and 
Johnson & Veasy. There are three drying yards for codfish north of 
the Golden Gate, near San Francisco. 

The cod-fishing grounds are south of the Aleutian Islands — espe- 
cially the Choumagin Group, and in the Ochotsk Sea. The latter, 
though 2,000 miles further and a month in sailing time, is preferred, 
because the area of known fishing ground is greater, the whole sea, 
700 miles long by 500 wide, being one immense cod bank, with water 
from twenty-five to fifty fathoms deep, where the largest vessels can 
anchor and cruise ; whereas the banks near the Aleutian Islands, so 
far as examined, are too near the Islands, or too small for large ves- 
sels to venture with safety. Beluing Sea, twice as large as the 
Ochotsk, and from fifteen to fifty fathoms deep, is another immense 
cod bank, but is not used now. There may be extensive cod banks 
south of the Aleutian Islands, but the American Government has ne- 
glected to have any exploration made. 

The average size of the Pacific cod is about 3.1 pounds, though there 
is no difficulty in getting larger fish in deep water. All are pickle 
cured. A few codfish are brought to California from Massachusetts, 
but the importation is steadily decreasing, and will soon cease. The I 
California fish are sent to Oregon, Washington, Nevada, and a few as 
far east as Utah ; and small shipments are made for the use of Ameri- 
cans in China, Japan and Mexico — the natives of those countries not 
having learned to like salt fish. One cod-fishing vessel has been sent | 
out from Puget Sound, but has been withdrawn from the business. 
Oregon, British Columbia and Alaska have, and have had, no sail- ! 
vesseis occupied regularly in cod fishing, but the fish are caught off 
Vancouver Island and Alaska, and eaten fresh. All the cod brought I 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC 



in cod fishing vessels to San Francisco are pickle cured ; a few caught 
near the harbor are brought in fresh. 

A. report from Berlin in the summer of 1879, sad that the American 
Minister at St. Petersburg was negotiating with the Russian Govern- 
ment in reference to fisheries in the North Pacific ; and it is supposed 
that he was trying to obtain permissi&n for the American codfishermen 
to fish within three miles of the shore in the Ochofcsk, or land in 
Kamtschatka, and use the same freedom as if they were on the coast 
of their own. We have not heard that any of the codfishermen have 
solicited such privileges, and very little has been said hitherto about 
the fishery in the Ochotsk or its value. 

Halibut —In 1879, a vessel brought fresh halibut in ice to San Fran- 
cisco, from the halibut grounds off Cape Flattery, but the enterprise 
was unprofitable. In 1880, a schooner was employed in the same 
fishery, but salted her catch. (40 tons), which was afterward smoked 
on the shore of Marine county to prepare it for the market. 

Trawl Fishing. — Large quantities of red rock cod, Sebastes Ruber, 
which sometimes reaches a weight of twenty-five pounds, and 8. 
Rosaceus, fourteen pounds ; the black rock cod, 8. Melanops, which 
seldom exceeds eight pounds ; 8. Nigrocinctus, very rare ; 8. Auricu- 
latus, eighteen inches long at the longest ; and the blue rock cod, 
Ophiodon Elongatus, fifty pounds, are caught near the Golden Gate, 
and as far south as Monterey Bay, with trawl-lines, to be sold fresh in 
the San Francisco market. Most of the fish sold in the market are 
much smaller than the largest size here mentioned. The tame lines 
catch flounders of various species (the most common is the Platichthys 
8tellatus, twelve pounds) soles of various species (the most common is 
the Hippoglossoides Melanosticus, eighteen inches long), the bastard 
halibut (IJropsetta Californica, sixty pounds and five feet long), and 
very rarely the true halibut. The barracouta is caught by trawl-lines 
near £anta Cruz and Monterey, from March to June, inclusive, and is 
excellent table fish. The San Francisco boats engaged in the trawl 
fishing in the ocean number sixty, and have from seven to eight men 
each to a boat, usually. The line is about a mile long, requires two 
hours to run out, three hours to haul in, and a good catch at one haul 
from its 4,000 hooks is 500 pounds — though occasionally reaching 
2,000. * 

Seine Fishing. — The seines are used in San Francisco, Tomales and 
Monterey Bays, for the viviparous perch of the Embiotocidas family, 
the smelts of the Atherinopsis, Osmervs, and other genera; the herring 
(Clupea Mirdbilus), the sturgeon, which occasionally reaches a weight 
of 500 pounds, shark, tom-cod and other fish. 

The nets, 600 yards long and two fathoms deep, are managed by 
boats, with two or three men to each boat. 

The herring are caught from October to March, inclusive, in the 
meshes, by letting the net float with the tide, against which the her 
ring run. The smelt spawn in August, but are caught throughout 
the year ; the flounders spawn and the viviparous perch give birth to 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAV 51 



their little fish in April and May. Beside the small sharks taken in 
the shallow water with seines, Mien- have lieen times when lar^>- ones 
were caught at Saucelito with hooks, for their livers, which yield an 
excellent lubricating oil. Some of these thus taken were fourteen 
feet long, of the man eating species, but we do oot remember reading 
that any of the numerous bathers in our Bay have ever been attacked 
by them Small sharks canghl by the i Ihineee are eaten fresh or dried, 
and dried shark fins are shipped to China as a delicacy, and also con- 
sumed here. 

Our coast has extensive fisheries that are neglected, including the 
halibut, oft" Cape Flattery ; the mullet, along the shore from Santa 
Barbara southward, especially in Magdalena Bay: the t'alit'ornian 
mackerel, jew fish and sheephead. A little has been done in smoking 
herring, canning sardine and anchovy, and making caviar out of stur- 
geon roe ; but these industries have not reached importance. 

Shell Fish. — The fresh oysters consumed in California are mostly 
brought when small — the shells as large as a half dollar — in the cars 
from New York, and planted about a year, in which time the shell 
doubles in length and the oyster quadruples in weight. The oysters 
fatten more rapidly in our Bay than on the Atlantic Coast, but the 
mud bottom, or some other influence, is not favorable to the life of the 
young, and, therefore, though they sp iwn from April to September, 
there is no increase, and new supplies have to be brought every year — 
the importation for planting being, in an average year, about 12,000,- 
000, while one fifth as many large ones are brought to be eaten with- 
out fattening. There are a few small indigenous oysters in our Bay, 
but they have no commercial value. The only Pacific oysters are from 
Shoal water Bay, which sends about 40,000,000 (600 in a'bushel) to San 
Francisco annually; and before the railroad days sent nearly three 
times as many. The Shoalwater oysters are put into the Bay to keep 
them alive, but do not gain much in size, and are known in the market 
as " California oysters." The oyster importing houses — E. Terry & 
Co., Morgan & Co., Swanburg ft West, Doane ft Co , the Bay CStJ 
Oyster Company, and the Shoalwater Bay Oyster Company — have each 
an oyster ground in the Bay, that of Terry ft Co. being on the Ala- 
meda shore, south of the town of Alameda, and those of th~ others 
on the San Mateo shore, near Milbrae. The grounds are fenced in 
with pickets, four inches apart, to keep out the stingrays — fl it-fish — 
which eat the oysters. There are large oysters in the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, and a few have been brought alive to San Francisco, but they 
do not arrive in good condition. 

The clams in San Francisco Bay are increasing in number and are 
good in quality. The Atlantic lobster has been planted on our 
but has not yet gained a place in our market. The prawn, sometimes 
called the crawfish, similar to the lobster in si/ j . flavor and form, but 
without the claws, is supplied to San Francisco from the coast south 
of Santa Cruz. The abalone is taken by Chinamen mainly for its 
shell, but they eat its meat and dry it — resembling, when dry. a colt's 
hoof in size, shape, color and hardness — for shipment to China. An 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



excellent clam is canned at Klawack (latitude fifty-six in Alaska) by 
the North Pacific Trading and Packing Company of San Francisco. 
This company erected a cannery to catch salmon in the channel be- 
tween the islands at Klawack, but those fish were rare in 1878 beyond 
any previous observation, so the men canned clams and halibut in- 
stead. The halibut are caught twenty miles out, and both halibut 
and clams are very abundant. 

FisJiermen. — The white fishermen of San Francisco number about 
500, of whom more than half are Italians, and the remainder Dalma- 
tians, Greeks, Portuguese and Americans. The gross amount of their 
sales at first hands is probably not far from $1,500 a day. The trawl- 
fishing is done in from fifteen to sixty fathoms of water, mostly near 
the shore, from Pigeon Point to Monterey. There is a bank a mile 
wide and nine miles long, with water from thirty-eight to fifty fath- 
oms, suitable for trawling twenty-five miles south of the Farallones. 

Smack-fishing has been tried for the San Francisco aad Humboldt 
Bay markets without success. The fish died when the boats entered 
the bay, probably because the fresh or half fresh water was fatal to 
them. Years have elapsed since these experiments were made with 
well-hole vessels, and we hope that better results will be obtained in 
the future. Most of the fish sold in the San Francisco market have 
been dead six, and many of them twelve hours, before reaching the 
cook. 

Five hundred Chinamen are engaged in catching shrimps, small fish 
and clams, in San Francisco. They get the shrimps in two fathoms of 
water, in funnel nets, set toward the tide when it begins to come in, 
and lifted before the ebb. Five men in a boat manage twelve or fif- 
teen nets. Some of the shrimps are sold fresh in San Francisco, but 
most of them, after boiling half an hour, are dried in the sun, in a 
yard or smooth piece of ground, then trodden over with wooden shoes 
to loosen the shell, and winnowed to separate the meat from the 
shells. The latter, with small portions of the meat, are ground up 
and sent to China to manure the tea plantations ; the dried meat is 
sent to the Chinamen in the mines, and in their oWn country, for table 
use. The shrimp catch is valued at $10,000 a month. 

Biver Fisheries. — In the year ending August 1st, 1878, 304,000 
salmon, weighing 5,216,000, and 4,460 sturgeon, weighing 334,000 
pounds, were caught in the Sacramento River, below Sacramento 
City, and in the San Joaquin River, below Stockton; and, in the fol- 
lowing year, 171,000 salmon, weighing 3,550,000 pounds, and 7,100 
sturgeon, weighing 600,000 pounds, in round numbers. There, are 
6 salmon canneries on the Sacramento River, 1 on Eel River, and 1 
on Smith, making 8 in California,, worth, on the average, $25,000 
each; th«y have 270 boats worth $325 each, as many 250-fathom nets, 
worth $300 each, and, on the Sacramento, there are 120 scow-houses, 
worth $300 each — so the total investment may be $425,000. The 
canneries, when in active operation, employ 800 men, and there are, 
besides, 600 fishermen. The Eel River cannery was closed in 1879, 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC, 53 



prices being so low as to leave no margin for profit. The 8 canneries 
canned 48,000 cases, each containing 48 1-pound cans, in 1878; in 1879, 
4 canneries canned 14,000 cases. The salmon, dressed for canning, 
average 11 pounds each in weight. The Oregon canneries number 35, 
have an invested capital of $1,400,000, and employ 0,000 persons. 
Oregon, Washington, British Columbia, and Alaska, in 1878, canned 
600.000 cases, worth $3,260,000, and, in 1879, 468,000 cases, worth 
$2,000,000. 

In .1879 the Fish Commissioner of California planted 6,500,000 
young salmon, 500,000 white fish, 200,000 trout (Eastern and Califor- 
nian trout), 40,000 cat-fish, and 24 female lobsters, in the waters of 
our State. The shad and cat-fish introduced in previous years have 
multiplied, until they are frequently caught by fishermen ; and 
though the white fish are seldom caught, it is known that they are 
thriving. Previous importations of lobsters died out, but the 24 
which were placed in the Pacific, near the Golden Gate, in 1879. were 
in good condition, had 2,000,000 eggs attached to them, and hopes are 
entertained that they will supply an article of food new on our Coast. 
Eels brought from rivers of the Atlantic' Slope and placed in the 
waters of the Sacramento and its tributaries five years ago, have 
lived and probably multiplied, though we do not hear of them. 

The Commissioners complain that the law to protect the salmon 
during the spawning season >s systematically violated by many 
fishermen, and that the officials and juries in some of the villages 
along the Sacramento River will not prosecute or punish the 
criminals. It seems probable that some of the officials are principals, 
or at least, accomplices, in the frequent violations of the law, which 
the Legislature should take measures to protect and enforce. 

Vallejo Ilarbor. — The Vallejo Board of Trade has issued a pamphlet 
to contravert assertions that the harbor of Vallejo and tie channel 
through San Pablo Bay have become much shallower than they were 
twenty years ago, and that, consequently, the Navy Yard should be 
moved from Mare Island. 

As to the deposit along the water front of the Navy Yard, it is simi- 
lar in character to that which settles in many other harbors. Dredg 
ing has been necessary there, as in San Francisco and New York, 
and has, on the average, cost only $1800 a year. George Davidson 
says Vallejo harbor is not difficult to preserve ; the cost of it will not 
be one-tenth so much as at the League Island Navy Yard (in Delaware 
Bay), of which latter harbor he made the oriffi-nal surveys. He con- 
siders Mare Island the best place for a Navy Yard on the Coast. The 
testimony of A. F. Rodgers was to the same general effect. Captain 
Bradford, of the U.S. Coast Survey (as are Davidson and Rodgers), 
says a vessel drawing 21^ can cross the bar at San Pablo Bay at low, 
and 27i at high water. The channel across the bar is a mile and a 
half wide ; " a ship of as deep draught can go over it [the bar] as in 
1856,'*' In other words, if we understand Captain Bradford's testi- 
mony, while much mud has been deposited in San Pablo Bay, none 
has been deposited on the shallowest part of the bar. 



54 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Commodore Phelps says a good harbor can always be maintained in 
front of Mare Island Navy Yard without much difficulty or expense. 
Captain P. C. Johnson, V. S. N. ; Captain John Irwin, U. S. N. ; 
Commander Louis Kempff, U. S. N. ; A. W. Von Schmidt, C. E. ; 
Pilot C. H. Harrison, and Captain G. Gedge, were all questioned by a 
committee of the Board of Trade, and their statements are given with 
those of the authorities previously mentioned in the pamphlet before 
us — all contradicting the assertions circulated at Washington. There 
is a general opinion, however, that Commission Rock in the harbor 
should be removed, and that some of the wharves on both sides should 
be shortened. 

Port Costa. — California has gained two sea-ports in 1880. The 
adoption of the Carquinez route for the overland travel led to the con- 
struction of wharves, side tracks and warehouses at Benicia and Port 
Costa, with facilities for loading ships ; and, as the expense is less 
than at Oakland wharf or in San Francisco for much of the grain; a 
large part of the crop of 1880-81 will be shipped there. In both 
places the situation occupied by the warehouses and wheat wharves 
was by nature ill adapted to the purpose, required much improvement 
before it could be used, is scanty and cannot be enlarged without a 
large additional expense. Port Costa is a narrow strip between a 
rugged hill and deep water, and the laborers have their homes two 
miles away, at Martinez. The site of Benicia is in many respects 
excellent, but the dry upland of the town is separated from the water 
front by swamp, which cannot be filled without considerable cost. 
Lots have risen in price recently, a number of houses have been built, 
and Benicia, as compared with its condition during the period from 
1854 to 1879, is prosperous. 

Oakland Harbor. — The work on the artificial harbor of Oakland and 
Alameda, in San Antonio Creek, has been resumed by order of the 
Secretary of War, acting under an opinion of the Attorney-General 
that the Oakland Water Front Company never acquired the property 
of the estuary or of the land necessarily occupied by the walls needed 
to keep its channel in a navigable condition. He thinks that when 
the State declared San Antonio Creek a navigable stream it gave 
Congress control, which it could not take away by transferring the 
submerged land to Oakland or the Oakland Water Front Company. 
This opinion implies that the administration made a mistake in stop- 
ping the work for the reason that it was constructed on the property 
of a private corporation. The first appropriation in 1874 w»s $100,000 ; 
and others of $100,000, $75,000, $80,000, $60,000, and $60,000, followed 
in the years 1875, 1876, 1877, 1878, 1879 and 1880 respectively, making 
a total of $475,000, of which about $210,000 are still unexpended, and, 
if we mistake not, available. The original estimate of the total cost 
was $1,355,000. The work consists of two walls of loose stone about 
two miles long, running from each side of the mouth of San Antonio 
Creek to deep water, with a channel 300 yards wide to be twenty five 
feet deep at low tide between them. Boats drawing two feet could 



A 1. T 1 ( A L [F<> US 1. 1.1/. .V. 1 X. 1 / '. 



not enter the creek at low tide in 1873. With the help of the artificial 
channel, in its present incomplete condition, boats drawing twelve 
feet reach the wharf. The Central Pacific Railroad Company has 
finished the construction of its stone mole a mile and a half on the 
line ot the Oakland wharf, out to deep water, thus making a solid 
basis for its track and a few terminal buildings. 

Wilmington — The labors on the Wilmington harbor continue, and 
it is said the appropriation now available will enable the contractor to 
make a channel sixty feet wide and twelve feet deep at low tide, but 
the Los Angeles people hope to have a channel 2U0 feet wide and 
eighteen feet deep at a total cost of $600,000— not an extravagant 
sum. The dredger is at work now among heavy boulders, so that the 
expense of deepening the channel is great. 

Harbor of Refuge — Nothing has been done about a harbor of refuge 
on the Coast, between San Fiancisco and the Columbia River. The 
enemies of Port Orford had enough influence not only to prevent any 
appropriation for the work at that place, which was selected by the 
Board of Army Engineers, after an examination of all the rival places, 
but to obtain an order requiring the Board to reconsider their recom- 
mendation. The cost of the Port Orford harbor ot refuge is estimated 
by the engineers to be $3,954,000. 

The Wheat Crop — Out of 5,000,000 acres cultivated in California, 
half is in wheat, which, at 15 bushels to the acre, would yield about 
1,200,000 tons. It is expected, however, that in average seasons a 
considerable part of the wheat will fail to ripen its grain, and it will 
be cut for hay. The uncertainty of the seasons leads many farmers 
to till a large area superficially, rather than a small one thoroughly ; 
for in some districts Summer-fallowing and repeated deep ploughing 
will not secure a good yield after a dry Spring, nor will a single 
shallow ploughing prevent a good crop from coming when the rains 
are abuudant and evenly distributed from December to April. The 
season of 1880 was favorable, and the wheat crop of the State 
amounted to at least 1,000000 tons (some persons have said 1,200,000), 
and t: e home consumption (one-third of it for seed) may be 270,000 
tons, leaving 730,000 tons, worth perhaps $14,000,000, for exportation. 
The crop in 1S7U was 850,000 tons, the leading counties being thus 
reported by the Assessors, whose figures are in many cases mere 
estimates, and far from the truth, while in others they are approxi- 
matt ly correct : 

Count v Acres. Tons. 

Merced 205,000 125,000 

san Joaquin 2:i.s,000 87,000 

Colosa 220,000 7s, HH) 

Butte 162,000 68,000 

Yolo Ktt.OUO 48,100 

Contra Costa 82,000 15,008 

Solano 97,000 44,000 

Sutter 126,000 42,000 

Tulare 61,000 36 000 

Santa Clara 185.000 28,000 

Monterey 94,000 23,000 



56 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Hot winds raged ten days in the upper Sacramento Valley, com- 
pletely drying up the many fields in June 1880, so as to b« 
worthless even for hay : in others, shrivelling the grain and reducing 
its amount three-quarters, one-half, or one-quarter below the yield 
expected three weeks ago. The damage varied greatly within small 
distances, having been influenced by numerous circumstances, the 
absolute and relative values of which are, to a great extent, conjec- 
ture. In some places it was observed that the injury was greatest 
where the wheat was in the milk ; and, near Antioch, some farmers 
found that they had over estimated the damage, for in fields which 
they began to cut for hay, they found chat the patches left to the last 
recovered greatly after a few days of cool weather, and will now give 
a good yield of grain. The loss to Colusa by the bot wind was prob- 
ably one-sixth of the crop. There is a general dissatisfaction with 
wheat, but the farmers do not know what to cultivate in its place ; 
and next year will see more of it than ever. The practice of Summer 
fallowing is rapidly gaining favor, experience having proved that in 
the average season it yields a better and surer crop than any other 
method of cultivation, on the greater portion of the area occupied by 
grain. The most profitable wheat farms in the State, if the opinion 
of some farmers who have a good opportunity to learn the facts, is to 
be accepted, are the large tracts in the Sacramento Valley, and those 
who manage the most extensive areas are said to derive the largest 
net income by the acre, Some of these men have the credit of putting 
their wheat in the sack at 75 cents a cental, while many of the 
smaller farmers find their expenses run up to $1.10, and in some cases 
$1.20. Certain it is that the larger wheat ranches of the Sacramento 
Valley are not being sub-divided. 

The following table of the expenses and receipts per acre from a 
wheat field near Santa Eosa. published in the Republican of that place, 
may apply to many small wheat farms in the coast region near San 
Francisco Bay: 

Expenses per acre: 

Ploughing $150 

Sowing and harrowing 5 

80 lbs seed wheat at $1 88 1 r y. 

Heading and board ] ■'') 

Threshing 20 bushels, 1200 lbs, at 13c i 5o 

Nine sacks at 10c 90 

Hauling to depot '•"' 

Taxes.... J uu 

Total ..$<. 

Received for the year: 

1877, 24 bushels, 1440 lbs at $2 27% $32 76 

1878, 17 bushels, 1020 lbs at $1'50 : 15 30 

1879, lf> busnels, 1140 fts at $1 87% 21 37 

Total for three years $69 43 

Average for one year - $23 14 

Expense per year 8 98 

Net profits 14 16 

The pasture is worth to us at least 50 cents per acre 



According to those figures the whe its a cental on the 

average of three years, without any allowance for rent; and the 
wheat farmers generally in California would be glad to ba secure of a 
profit of $o an acre. 

Prices — The following table, showing the freight from Sao Fran- 
cisco to Liverpool, and tlie prices in both places per cental in Sep- 
tember, December and May ot each crop year, is compiled from other 
tables prepared by Albert Montpellier, Esq., of the Granger's Bank. 
The figures for these mouths may be accepted as fair measures of the 
• of the year : 

Piice. 

Mouths. Freight. Ban Kru'co Liverpool 

1867, September SO 77 

• o 'mber 

i iv 70 

ptember 85 

L868, Deoember n tij 

1899, May 59 

ptember 85 

1869, D'cember 62 

1^-7 i, May o 56 

L870, September 6i 

lsTn, December 56 

1871, M iv 

September 50 

1871, Deoember 56 

1872, May 81 

1872, September 96 

1872, December 1 02 

187.1, May 96 

1S7:{, S.-p:eiiH> r ... 77 

1878, Djcember 85 

1874, May 93 

1874, September 81 

1874, December 75 

1875, May 52 

187"), September 64 

1875, December 65 

lS7t>, May 68 

1876, September 77 

I loamber.... 70 

1S77, M iv 89 

1877, September 5') 

1877, December 52 

1878, May 59 

1-iTs, September..... 54 

187S, Decemb.T 44 

1879, May 57 

1879, September 59 

1879, December 80 

1880, May 63 

1880, September „ 80 

1880, December 80 

The prices at the close of November, 1980, were 75 cents a centaj 
for freight to Liverpool, and $1.50 a cental for wheat ]in San Francisco 



t'2 22 




2 til 




1 11 


3 80 


1 92 


8 13 


2 04 




1 57 




1 70 


2 7'. 


1 66 


2 42 


1 71 


2 41 


1 ^7 


2 63 


2 21 


2 38 


a si 


8 08 


2 .54 


3 10 


2 67 


8 15 


1 94 




1 59 


8 T. 


1 89 


8 12 


1 87 


3 02 


2 26 


3 20 


2 27 


8 37 


1 87 


;; IS 


1 52 


2 56 


1 55 


2 53 


1 71 


226 


2 07 


2 76 


1 91 


2 83 


1 72 


2 40 


1 52 


2 41 


2 14 


2 79 


2 72 


8 14 


2 31 


3 20 




3 22 


1 91 




1 72 


2 .".1 


1 70 


2 39 


1 62 


2 22 


1 75 


2 42 


2 01 


2 41 


1 57 


2 58 


1 30 


2 41 


1 47 


258 



58 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 

Varieties of Wheat — There is no general agreement, among the 
Californian farmers, about the relative value of the different 'varieties 
of wheat cultivated in the State, and it is, perhaps, not saying too 
much, to assert that the majority in selecting their seed are not gov- 
erned by variety, or cannot give satisfactory reasons for their choice. 
And yet others attach great importance to the variety, and will sow 
nothing save their favorite, unless as matter of experiment. An ex- 
amination, however, will often show that two men, having adjacent 
farms with soils similar in mineralogical character and condition of 
moisture, will prefer different kinds. The leading varieties of wheat 
are the. Mediterranean, Australian, Club, Chile, Sonora, Odessa, Tou- 
zelle, Eappahannock, Proper, and Pride of Butte. Tne large increase 
of the crop in Southern California was one of the manifestations of 
wheat growing on our Slope in 1880 ; and this increase was largely 
due to confidence that the Odessa wheat would not suffer by rust, 
which has often ruined the fields in that region. 

W. R. Olden writes thus of it : 

"The 'Anaheim Odessa wheat' is a peculiar variety, and differs in 
its growth from any variety that I have seen. When it first comes 
up the leaves are very fine and slender, and make very little show; 
the color is a dark green, and at that age it resembles rye. In a week 
you notice that a nucleus of a stool has formed, and that the leaves 
and shoots have become perceptibly broader and stronger as they 
spread out in every direction from the centre. All of the first efforts 
of each plant are exclusively devoted to covering all of the land w thin 
j reach, and it is only after the different stools touch each other that it 
grows upward at all. On weedy ground this is an important charac- 
teristic, as, if weeds grow, you can run over it with a mower and cut 
the weeds close to the ground two months alter seeding, not only 
without injury to the wheat, but, on the contrary, to its manifest ben- 
efit. I have seen fields this year that apparently were one mass of 
mustard and malva, with no wheat visible, that after mowing became 
a fine crop of beautiful weedless wheat. Tins is not practicable with any 
other varieties. Another peculiarity is that it delights in fogs ; it pos- 
sesses a great faculty of condensing moisture from the air. It cannot 
have too much fog. This peculiarity fits it for the coast lands* where 
other wheat is liable to rust — where its immunity from rust makes it 
a certain crop. It is also suited for the reclaimed lands, and the low, 
wet lands of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys, which are 
equally liable to rust. Another advantage is that such a small quan- 
tity of seed is required. If sown early, not more than 25 or 30 pounds 
of seed should be sown. If it has time it will cover the ground. The 
grain is small and plump, and goes farther than larger grain." 

The color of the grain is a light amber, and it is extremely rich in 
gluten, just the kind of wheat that millers want to mix with the 
white, starchy wheat, in order to make a good baker's flour. Our crop 
this year, owing to the causes I have mentioned, will not be more 
than half as large as it promised to be in May ; but notwithstanding 
the fact that we will sow at least ten times as many acres as we did 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC'- 



this year, there will doubtless be a considerable surplus to spare for 
feed. 

The " Anaheim Odessa " is a bald wheat, but (mixed with an occa- 
sional stool of a bearded variety that possesses in other respects the 
same characteristics— it does not rust, and ripens at the same time. 
The grain is somewhat longer and darker colored, and resembles the 
red Mediterranean wheat that [ remember forty years ago in Penn- 
sylvania. One farmer showed me some that he had gathered before 
harvesting last year, and cultivated separately this year, and will sow 
it separately again. If sown early, on properly prepared land, with a 
reasonable rainfall, I consider it a sure crop. 

Harvesting. — The question whether it is cheaper to cut wheat with a 
header or with a self binding reaper has again been agitated by the j 
advocates of the reapers, but they have gained little ground. The ' 
header continues to be used almost universally in California. It is the ( 
larger implement, despatches the work more rapidly, is preferred when 
the crop is to be sold as soon as possible, is often accompanied by the ! 
threshing machine, and its management may be considered a sep irate 
business. The people have the headers, are familiar with them, and 
want to have their wheat out of the way promptly. Indeed, there is 
a doubt whether the prevalent tendency is not to cut a wider rath-r 
than a narrower swath. In 1879, a header with a sickle 24 feet long 
was used in the San Joaquin Valley, and driven by 24 horses, under 
the charge of five men, it cleaned 45, and sometimes 50, acres in a 
day. It traveled about 17 miles in that time, and cut three acres for 
every mile of distance. A threshing machine accompanied it, and 
wheat passed without delay from the stalk into the sack. Another 
cut a swath 16.} feet, and one in 1880 cut 34 feet ; but the ordinary 
machine has a sickle-bar of not more than 12 feat. 

The reaper requires binding, and is usually preferred if the grain is 
to be kept long in the stack. Binding by hand is expensive, and the 
wire employed in most of the self-binders breaks the threshing ma- 
chines, so that threshing is more expensive. The self binding reaper 
goes over 8 acres (with 5i foot swath) in a day. E. W. Steele thus es- 
timates the daily expense of a header cutting a swath of 12 feet : 

Six horses to run header. 

Six horses to run three header wagons, at 25 cents each * 3 00 

Twelve horses' board, at 25 cents each 3 00 

Men to run the header 3 00 

Three men to drive header wagons, at $1 50 4 50 

One stacker 1 50 

One loader 1 50 

Six men's board, at 50 cents ... 3 00 

For heading 15 acres Total 319 50 

For heading 1 acre 130 

Wear and te ar of machinery, etc., not included. 



60 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANA G. 



The following is his estimate for a self binding reaper: 

Three horses, at 25 cents each $ 75 

Board of three horses, at 25 cents each 75 

Man to run binder and reaper 3 00 

Man.to shock the grain 1 50 

Board of two men, at 50 cents per day 1 00 

Wire or twine for binding 8 acres, at 40 cents 3 20 

For reaping and binding 8 acres Total...., $10 20 

Price per acre, 1 25 

Offset, wear and tear of machinery, etc., against header machinery, 
etc. 

He makes the following comments on these figures : 

" This leaves the headed grain in stack, and the reaped grain in the 
shock. But the reaped grain can be as cheaply gotten to the thresher 
from shock as the headed grain from stack, and the thresher will not 
have to contend with damp grain, grain in the sweat, and the trouble, 
delay and dirt incident to and inseparable from cleaning up the bot- 
tom of a stack or setting. The reaped grain, how ver, would have to 
be fed into the thresher by. hand, which would be an expense of $4 
per day, during threshing, that the headed grain would not have. 
The reaped and bound grain should be shocked in small, round shocks, 
and every shock protected from the drying and coloring process by be- 
ing capped by an inverted bundle being spread out and placed, heads 
down, over the heads of the wheat in shock. This is particularly 
necessary in Coast climate or foggy weather ; and were it always done, 
we should hear less about 'Bay Feed,' and 'Coast Feed,' and 'dark 
Coast grain,' etc. 

If the small farmer will use the self-binder, he and his family can 
do their own harvesting by changing work witl^ his neighbors and 
getting his teams and help to help draw the grain from shock to 
thresher. Again, if grain is struck with the rust, if anywhere near 
ripe, it may be saved by reaping and binding at once, and cannot be 
cut too quickly after rust — 1 mean a bad rust — makes its appearance ; 
for, if far enough advanced, it will be a good crop, if not, part of a 
crop of hay ; if it stands to ripen, nothing. 

Some of our farmers think that they can cut and bind, on an aver- 
age, nearly as much daily with a 6-foot 6-inch binder as a 12-foot 
header, and the 6-foot 6-inch reaper can be run as cheaply as the 5-foot 
6-inch — possibly might pay to use four horses instead of three. And 
yet, nearly all of the grain in our section is headed, and I think by 
far the greater portion of the grain in California is harvested in this 
way, and harvested at an average unnecessary loss of about 30 per 
cent, in expense, quality and quantity of grain." 

If all the grain grown near the coast could be made bright in ap- 
pearance, and saved from being classed as second or third-rate, by 
reaping and standing in the shock, that inducement should be con- 
clusive ; but many farmers will hesitate to accept Mr. Steele's state- 
ment of the difference in quality resulting from the two processes. 



AITA QALIF0BN1A ALMA \ 61 



TJU Orange. — According to the report of the State Surveyor 
il, there w >re 1 ! 7,000 bearing or inge trees in the State in 1879, 
Including 103.000 in Los Angeles, 5000 in - lino, 3300 in 

Hlara, 2600 in Sonoma, 600 in Bntte, 500 in Saba, W0 in San 
Dieg >. 300 in Alameda, and Bmaller numbers in other counties. The 
number of oranges shipped from the Southern Coast to San Fran- 
oiscowas 1,700.000 in is?.'. 1,600.000 in 1ST:;. 1,500,000 in 1874 5,400, 

000 iu 1875, 2,800,000 in L876, 7,400,000 in L877, and 1,800, in 1878, 

which last year we have no figures, though the shipment of 
1879 was over 15,000,000. The recent increase in the crop h 
been large, in proportion to the plantings. According to the Surv -yor- 
General's report, there were 40,000 trees in 1871, and these sent almost 
as mnch fruit in 1872 as twice the number seven years later. The 
averaire shipment to San Francisco, instead of being 2000 for each 
bearing tree, is now less than 100 — a deduction ol c cent, 

for the difference between the lively romance ot enthusiastic anticipa- 
tion and the dull reality of chilling experience. There are 5000 b ar 
hag trees in San Bernardino, and the crop for 18S0 is 700.01)0, or 140 to 
the tree, on an average. 

H. V. Slosson, railroad agent at San Gabriel, has prepared a statis- 
tical table of the orchards and vineyards and their products in his 
valley. He finds that To orchards have 134 ODD trees, including; 29 000 
in bearing; that they pro luced 8.600.000 oranges in 1879 13,856 boxes 
averaging 210 oranges to the box) : that the fruit sold for $10 n^r 1000, 
or $1-10 tor the yield of an acre (200 oranges to a tree and To I 
an acre) : that the total cost of each acre, when the trees came into 
benrinsr. is $300 per acre ; and that the annual expense of cultivation 
is $30 an acre. The largest orchards are those of E. J. Baldwin, 200 
acres ; B. VV. Wilson & Co., 105, and L. J. Rose, 100 acres. 

The climate in the California valleys and hills, generally, is favor- 
able to the orange. The fruit and the trees, fifteen years old, are so 
rarely injured by frost that the percentage of loss is very small ; but 
until the, trees are eight years old they are secure in few places. The 
best protection agaiust frost is in a relative elevation of 200 or 390 
feet near some considerable area of lower land into which the cold 
air can sink, with an absolute elevation not exceeding 1500 feet above 
the sea In many situations a protection against the winds — such as 
a range of hills, a wall, or a line of high trees — protects the orange 
against frost, and also secures a better growth and setting of fruit 
than in more exposed places. 

The fact that very few orange orchards have been set out in our 
State north of Santa Barbara county may be accepted as proof that 
the general experience with the numerous old trees growing in at 
least 20 different coast, interior valley and Sierra counties, has not 
been edfeouragrin^. No other pla.-e north of Santa Barbara has made 
reports so favorable for the cultivation of the orange as Newcastle, at 
an elevation ot about 1000 feet above the sea. According to the latest 
report of the State Surveyor-General, Placer county has fewer than 



62 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



200 orange trees in bearing, so the experience there is certainly not 
extensive. 

The Orange Committee of the Citrus Fair at Riverside, in 1879, 
expressed the opinion that the best orange exhibited there was the 
Brazil (or Navel) variety ; next came the Royal (or Du Roi) ; and after 
these the Mediterranean Sweet, St. Michael, Malta Blood, Creole, 
Konah and Acapulco. Most of the fruits thus recommended were 
perhaps seedlings of the varieties mentioned, for we read that a com- 
parison of ten couples each of one seedling and one budded showed a 
superiority for six seedlings, a slight inferiority for three, and an 
equality for one. 

The question whether it is more profitable to set out an orchard 
with budded or seedling trees in California is not settled. L. J. Rose, 
one of the highest authorities, prefers seedlings ; Mr. Garey, who has 
a nursery, recommends budded trees, and these two are the leading 
advocates on the two sides. The objections to the budded trees are 
that they are small, short-lived, sickly and likely to break apart at 
the graft or bud. Those grafted on the China lemon stock have 
been killed by Irost in places where seedlings of the same age were 
injured but little. The objections to the seedlings are, that they do 
not yield fruit of uniform quality, and are later in bearing. The 
common practice is to prefer the seedling, because of the cost. If the 
transplanting is not done with threat care to keep the roots moist, and 
to have the ground in excellent condition to receive them, a large 
proportion will be lost. Although the Brazil may be more palatable, 
the common Los Angeles seedling is an excellent fruit. 

Much complaint has been made against trees budded on the China 
lemon and citron stocks. It is said that both give a bitter taste to the 
fruit, and that the China lemon is used by nurserymen only because it 
takes the bud or graft readily, and with its help the budded trees can 
be produced more cheaply than on any other stock. The sour Seville 
is generally considered the best for a stock. 

The orange, when healthy, carefully cultivated, and in a good situ- 
ation, bears with more regularity and abundance than any other 
fruit tree in our State. It shows less of the alternating tendency (to 
overbear in one year and then rest the next) than the deciduous fruits 
generally, but is not entirely free from it. In the southern part of the 
State, the fruit begins to ripen in December, and keeps coming to the 
market for six months ; in Placer county it ripens a month earlier. 
The oranges of Hawaii and Tahiti ripen in May. 

An old and healthy tree in a favorable year, without injury, will 
2000 oranges, worth, at the common prices, $40 per tree. Not 
mard in California has averaged so much for the last crop. There 
been cases in which the crop of a single tree has been sold for 

and in 1874, J. D. Shorb, of San Gabriel, sold the oranges of 

cres of trees, twelve years old from the seed, for $1435 per acre. 

874, when Los Angeles was wild with excitement about the 

se wealth that was to overwhelm everybody who should plant 

the uiange extensively in the vicinity, Taliesin Evans wrote a care- 



A L TA CA LIFO RXL [ AL V. 1 X. W. 63 



fully prepared essay that appeared in the Overland Month')/ for 
October. He estimated the cost of 10 acrea of orchard, planted with 
two-year-old trees, at $1425 at the start, or $142.50 per acre. After it 
came into full bearing it would cost about $300 an acre for cultivating j 
and marketing the fruit, and would pay $1100 net profit per acre. 

The chief diseases'to which the orange tree is subject in California 
are the curl leaf, the root or gum disease, the black scale and the red 
or brown scale. The last is the only one that has done much damage, 
but it is extremely dangerous, and fears are entertained that it will 
destroy the value of some of the best and most extensive orchards in 
the State. 

Orange orchards, and lands suitable for them, can be bought in Los 
Angeles and San Bernardino counties. The wood of the orange tree 
is hard, and useful in the arts; the tree is highly ornamental, and 
though it may not be profitable in the middle and northern part of 
the State for cultivation on an extensive scale, it should have a place 
near every farm-house where it will grow. 

In 1879. 240,000,000 oranges (of which 120,000.000 spoiled on the way), 
and 315,000,000 lemons (of which 1 13,000,000 were spoiled), were shipped 
from Mediterranean ports to New York; and from West Indian ports 1G,- 
000,000 oranges, of wbich 7.000,000 were unsalable. The immense 
proportion of loss is encouraging to California orchardists The 
oranyes and lemons imported by >few York iast year numbered 329,- 
000,000, and were entered at the Custom-House as worth $2,900,000, or 
$8.80 per 1000. It might be worth while for the Custom- House 
authorities to inquire whether these figures are not lower than the 
market rates in the places of export. If, however, that be a true 
jnvoice price, the importer must receive at least $25 per 1000, to pay 
or losses, risks, freights, commissions, etc. 

Grapes. — The grape crop of 1830 was large, and, though late in 
ripening, the season was favorable for making wines and raisins. There 
was no rain until the 23 J of November, and then it was light and la-ted 
only a single day — not enough to do much damage to the few grapes 
which had not been gathered. The ravages of the phylloxera, and 
the unfavorable weather last Spring and Summer in the wine dis- 
tricts of Frauee, mad- a great increase in the demand for Californian 
wines; and, if the phylloxera had not appeared, many thousands of 
acres would be plante 1 with vines during the coming Winter and 
Spring. But the recent discoveries that the dreaded insect has spread 
from Sonoma into Napa, Solano and Yolo counties, and that it has as- 
sumed the winged form enabling it to travel rapidly, have chili- I ea 
terprise in this direction, though there are places where the facilities 
of irrigation offer protection, and hopes are entertained thr* 
remedies will kill off the pest in places that cannot be irrio 

The quantity of wina made in 1880 is a matter of surmU 
probably 10,000,000 or 12,010,000 gallons. It has been the . 
wine dealers to overstate the quantity in previous yea 
would publish 8,000,000 or 10,030.000 gallons, when it was 



64 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



than 5,000,000. San Francisco has never received more than 3,500,- 
000 gallons in a year, nor has the State ever exported more than 2,- 
200,000 gallons in a year. The receipts at San Francisco were 1,700,- 
000 gallons in 1876, 2,400,000 in 1877, 3,000,000 in 1878,3,400,000 in 
1879, and the same in 1880, The receipts of brandy were 60,000 gal- 
lons in 1876, 130,000 in 1877, 110,000 in 1878, and* 100,000 in 1879. 
Our wine exports by sea were 510,000 gallons in 1876, 890,000 in 1877, 
1,230,000 in 1878, and 1,400,000 in 1879, and the same amount in 1880. 
The export by rail is about 800,000 gallons annually. The figures for 
1881 will probably show a decided increase over 1880. 

The State has never approached the limit of its capacity in wine- 
making, the greater part of the grapes having been used every year 
for the table, while many have been allowed to spoil on the vines, 
and the hogs have been turned into some vineyards, as the most 
profitable use that could be made of them. There have 1 een years 
when grapes sold at Los Angeles and Sonoma for half a cent a pound 
at. wholesale, and such low prices still prevail in large vineyards in 
the Sierra Nevada, remote from the market. 

The area planted in vines and the number of gallons of wine made, 
are thus given in the r port of the State Surveyor-General for the 
year 1878, the latest for which we have an official report: 
Counties Acres 

Sonoma 10,000 

Los ADgeles 5,1:40 

Napa 3,635 

j Santa Clara 3,325 

! El Doraao 1,500 

Butte 900 

Sutter 850 

Yuba 60 

Calaveras 520 

Contra Costa.... 400 

Tulare 390 

Santa Barbara 260 



Gallons 

2,500,000 

1,703,000 

1,494,000 

105,000 

225,000 

10,000 

11,000 

3- ,000 

15,000 

28,000 

8,000 



Counties. Acres. 

San Bernardino.. .6 000 

Sacramento 3,640 

Solano 3,288 

Tuolumne 2,200 

Yolo 1,695 

Amador 850 

Placer 815 

Tehama 520 

Alameda 480 

Shacti 400 

San Diego 350 



Gallons. 

32i\000 

136,000 

145,000 

100,000 

215,000 

25,000 

40,000 

7,000 

90,000 

3,000 

6,000 



Sonoma is down for 10,000 acres, when it probably has not 7,000. 
We do not believe that San Bernardino has 6,000 acres. The total 
number of acres in vineyards is presumably about 42,000; and at an 
average of 800 to the acre, there are 33,600,000 vines— of which 25, 
000000 may be in lull bearing, yielding on the average, in good 
years, 10 pounds of grapes, or enough for one gallon to the vine, or 
800 gallons to the acre. Th:- actual product has been about 150 gal- 
lons to the acre, the grapes for 650 gallons being applied to other 
uses. In the above list Napa appears as the fifth in the area of its 
vineyards and the third in the amount of its vines; but it doubtless is 
next to Sonoma and Los Angeles in the area of its vineyards, and 
superior to them in the quantity of its wine, the proportion of wine 
to vineyard and the general condition of the wine industry Sonoma 
has been crippled by the phylloxera, and many of the vineyards in 
Los Angeles are planted on soils not adapted m make a fine quality of 
wine. It will be observed that Napa is credited in the above table 
with making 450 gallons to the acre; Los Angeles, 280; Sonoma 250 
Solano, f*an Bernardino, Tuolumne, and El Dorado, about 5Q each 



A LTA CA IAFORM. 1.1/. MA \A ' '. 65 



Tuolumne, El Dorado, Yuba, Placer, Calaveras, and Amador, have to- 
gether about 6,500 acres in the Sierra Nevada, where wine produc 
tion has not been profitable, bat time will change all that before many 
years, unless the phylloxera should prove destructive beyond our ex- 
pectation. 

According to our estimate Napa county made in 18S0 about 2,200,- 
000 gallons; Los Angeles county, 3,000,000; Sonoma county, 1,800,- 
000; Solano, Santa Clara, Yolo, Sacramento, and San Bernardino, each 
100,000; the foot-hills of the Sierra, 1.000,000; and other coun- 
ties, 1,500,000, making a total of about 10,500,000 gallons. 

Prof. Rivers, of the State University, has made the important dis- 
civi ry that the cask boring insec m decline) can be kepi out 

of wine casks by soaking the outside of the cask with a strong solu- 
tion of alum, and after it has dried in, putting on a coat of linseed oil, 
which dries and keeps the alum in place. 

The Prune. — The French prune (the Burgundy or Little Agen prune)' 
cultivated for drying, is regarded by some orchardists in Santa Clara 
as the most profitable fruit grown in the county. Good trees, ten 
years old, yield from 100 to 125 pounds of fresh fruit to the tree, and 
as there are from 100 to 125 trees to the acre, there may be two tons 
of dried primes from that area. There are CRses in which the yield of 
the dried fruit has amounted to five tons, but the trees are doubtless 
injured by being permitted to bear so much. It is only within a few 
years that the art of drying the prune, in a manner to command a 
good price in the market, has been learned in this State. 

The fruit, when ripe, is shaken from the tree o ce in four days, on 
cotton cloth, senii circiii r pieces being used to cover the ground. It 
is placed in a wire basket, dipped into a scalding hot solution of alkali, 
to sotten the skin and facilitate drying, and then into cold water, to 
wash off the alkali. Six days in tlie sun, on a litter made of lath half 
an inch apart, suffices usually for the drying. Then the prune is fin- 
ished — for the purpose of making the skin cleau and glossy, and kill- 
ing the insects — by exposing it to steam or dipping it into a hot solu- 
tion of sugar ; though some persons have finishing processes which 
they keep secret. The prun- , when packed into boxes, should be uni- 
form in quality, soft enough to g've its flavor readily to the pal 
and dry enough to be beyond the danger of moulding. 

Been — There are so many bee-keepers in California that they 1 
an annual meeting, and that of 1880 was held in Los An 
The following table shows the number of bee-keepers and of hive 
March, 1880, and of tons of honey obtained in the previous yeai 
several of the counties. 
Counties. Bee-keepers. Hives. Ho 

^an Diego 831 15,621 

Santa Barbara 31 1,767 

Ventira 70 4,600 

San Bernardino 22u 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAG 



Since March there has been a great increase in the number of 
hives, and it is estimated that San JJiego has now 25,000, Santa Bar- 
bara 3655, Ventura 7,000, and San Bernardino 6,000. The four coun- 
ties named produce probably two-thirds of the honey of California. 
The best honey in the comb is worth \%\ cents a pound, or $270 a 
ton, and the extracted honey about half so much. 

Hops. — The hop crops have been good in the Puyallup Valley, 
Washington Territory, Lane county, Oregon, and in Mendocino, So- 
noma, Napa, Sacramento and Merced counties in our State, the chief 
centres of industry on our Slope. The market is exceptionally high, 
and our Slope enjoys the pleasant combination of a large yield here 
with a sma 1 stock elsewhere. No agricultural product of California 
has more characteristics of a gamble than the hop. The crops are 
very irregular in their quantity and prices ; three years out of four are 
marked by great profits or serious losses. Our Slope is at a great dis- 
advantage, because of high wages, irregularity of product, great dis- 
tance from the European market, and lack of brands of widely-estab- 
lished reputation. The prediction was made with confidence some 
tweDty years ago that the Californian hops would soon command more 
favor than any other, because the lupuline, or dust, on the hop flower, 
elsewhere washed away by the rains, is here protected by our dry sum- 
mers, so that our hops would possess much more strength in propor- 
tion to their weight than those grown in Europe and the Atlantic 
States; and, beside," we should not have those entire failures of the 
crop that often follow wet weather in May and June. The natural 
advantages, however, resulting from our climate, are counter-balanced 
by high wages and carelessness and inexperience in the laborers em- 
ployed to gather, cure and pack the hops. They handle the hops so 
rudely that the lupuline is shaken off and the strength lost ; they burn 
the hops in the kiln, and they dry them insufficiently, so that they 
spoil in the bale. These are the main evils, but, of course, they are 
accompanied by a multitude of smaller ones, all, it may be said, grow- 
ing out of the inexperience or inferior capacity of the hop grower. 
He cannot expect to succeed without understanding the business, and 
giving close attention and strict control to every department. The 
hop-growers generally, of our Slope, went into the business without 
training in it, have given little attention to it, and have not made a 
success. Probably half the fields planted with hops have been dug up, 
and nowhere has the destruction been more extensive, relatively, than 
in Santa Clara, where about 200 acres have been rooted out. In 1875 
the yield of California was about 1400 tons, and in 1879 one-third less. 
The investment, including land, poles, drying-house and baking ma- 
chinery, is estimated to be $500 per acre, and the gross cost of the 
hops, including interest, is 12 cents per pound to the producer. The 
market price of the sound article ranges from. 5 to 55 cents a pound. 
The current rate now is 75 cents, promising a profit of $150 to $200 
an acre to those who have a good article. The Puyallup hop growers 
have 510 acres, and expect to receive about $200,000 gross for their 
crop. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 67 



Eucalyptus.— The net profit from ten acres of Stratton's blue gnm 
plantation in the hills back of Hay wards, Alameda county, was $1190 
at the end of seven years, whereas the same land, rented at $5 an acre, 
would have yielded $350 in the same time. The material cut off con- 
sisted of 600 telegraph poles, sold for 75 cents net each, and 149 cords 
of firewood, sold at $4 90 net each per cord. Besides the material cut 
off, 100 of the best trees were left standing on each acre, and these, by 
growing into large trees fit for manufacturing purposes, may yield as 
much more in a few years. The soil of the plantation was the clay 
common on the hills in Alameda county, and we do not believe it 
could have been rented for seven years in succession at $5 per acre for 
grain, pasture, or any ordinary farming crop. 

Irrigation. — A little work has been done in California in 1880 on 
irrigation canals ; much less than would have been done if the new 
Constitution had not discouraged corporation enterprise, and the ex- 
tensive ditching must be done by corporations or neglected. All the 
attempts to provide ditches at the public expense have been failures. 

In his report as State Engineer, Mr. Hall devotes a chapter to the 
irrigation duty of water ; that is the amount of land which should be 
sufficiently irrigated for an ordinary crop by a continuous supply of 
water running at the rate of a cubic foot in a second. He found that 
a second foot waters 83 acres in Valencia, 96 in Murcia, 140 at Hen- 
ares, 244 in the older irrigated portions of Grenada, all in Spain; 17J 
to 70 in Vaucluse, 70 at the mouth of the Rhone, 80 in Piedmont in 
the old irrigated districts, and 110 in the new; 160 to 180 in Hin- 
dostan, 40 to 80 in Utah, 90 from King's River, California, 70 from 
Kern River, 150 in the San Joaquin canal lands, 300 in Los Angeles 
and San Bernardino, and where the water is led by pipes, 1500. The 
differences of soil, sub-soil, crops, season, climate, modes of applica 
tion, distance that the water has to run before reaching the field, and 
care in measurement, are so great that it is difficult to ascertain with 
any precision how much of the water is wasted by careless manage- 
ment. In some places the irrigation is obtained by lettiug the water 
seep out through the sand from the ditch; in others the water must run 
over the ground and stand upon it for several 'days in ponds. A second 
foot covers 8+ acres with water 2 J inches deep in 24 hours; and if Mr. 
Hall had stated the amount of water in inches of depth, an idea with 
which all Calif'ornians are familiar, his figures •• ould have been much 
more intelligible to the average reader. 

In the appendix contributed by James D. Schuyler, Assistant En- 
gineer, who did all the field work relating to irrigation, we find much 
of interest and permanent value. He examined most of the larger ir- 
rigation districts of California, and gives many details about the 
canals and the method of applying the water. He finds that 60.000 
acres were irrigated in 187'J from King's River, 40.000 from Kern 
River, 40 000 on the west side of the San Joaquin River, 24 833 from 
the San Gabriel River, 23.200 from the Santa Ana River, 9,435 from 
the Los Angeles River, 4,400 from the Upper San Joaquin, 400 from 
the San Juan and Trabuco Creeks. 18.000 from artesian wells in Los 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, 6,622 from cienegas, or spring 
swamps, in the same counties, and 15,000 acres from Cache Creek. 

Mr. Schuyler gives his emphatic approval to the subterranean pipe 
system of irrigation. He saw three acres thoroughly irrigated by it 
with 8,000 gallons of water, at which rate a second foot would supply 
9,000 acres. In his opinion the system saves time and labor as well 
as water, gives facility for applying liquid manure, applies the water 
at better places than on the surface, and for " orchards, vineyards and 
gardens, must come into general use." The cost of the pipes and put- 
ting into position is from .$30 to $50 per acre. 

The area irrigated by the artesian wells of Los Angeles and S^n 
Bernardino is about 20 acres on the average, though a few may rise to 
209 acres. A well that will irrigate 40 acres is considered very good. 
The average discharge is from a third to a half of a cubic foot a sec- 
ond, and the largest in the southern part of the State (at Compton) 
pours out a foot and seven-tenths in a second The number of wells 
in Los Angeles County is estimated to be 550 ; the average cost, $400 ; 
and the cost for each second foot is $4,000. The majority of the 400 
wells in San Bernardino County have a diameter of only two inches. 
The artesian water has a temperature of 67 deg. at Pomona, of 62 
deg. in other parts of Los Angeles County and in San Bernardino, and 
of 71 deg. at Kern Island. 

Artesian Wells. — The number of artesian wells continues to increase 
in California, and is probably greater now, certainly in proportion to 
the population, and probably in proportion to the area, than in any 
other region of equal extent. The principal artesian districts are the 
borders of San Francisco and San Pablo Bays, the plain of Los An- 
geles, San Bernardino Valley, and the low land on the eastern side of 
the San Joaquin Valley — all of them supplied with pressure from ad 
jacent mountain ridges in which the mountains are mainly sandstone, 
granite and slate, which leave the water soft. The depth of the wells 
averages about 180 feet; and a common size of the bore is nine inches, 
though some are two, or even four inches larger. A well about 15 
miles northeast from Sacramento has gone down more than 2,000 
feet ; and another at Benicia 1,300 feet without finding water ; the 
well in the Court House Square of Stockton did not reach a good flow- 
ing supply until it had a depth of 1,000 feet, and one at Sacramento 
went down nearly as far without success 

There are places where a certain stratum of sand co itaining a good 
supply of artesian water, covers an area of several square miles, and 
the land owner knows to a certainty that he can get artesian water at 
the same depth as his neighbors on all sides of him have found it. 
This remark applies especially to a district between Alviso and San 
Jose. Generally the artesian strata appear to be in narrow streaks, 
and to lie at different levels, and in many places one well will reach 
a good flowing stream at 80 feet, while another, not half a mile off, 
bored on ground of the same level, must go 160. 

San Francisco has more artesian wells than any other county, and 
nearly all of them within an area of two miles wide by four long. 



ALT A GA 1. 1 mux I A A I. V A V .!' . 



The DTunbex is not leys thaD 600, and Borne persons have estimated it 
at 1,500. Relatively few Bend their water to the surface; none we 
1). lieve, north of a line drawn doe weal from the old Marine Hospital 
(in Rlneon Point. The water, in many, however oomes within a few 
feet of the surface, but unless there is Bufficienl demand to pay for the 
maintainance ol a steam engine, the well is, in most cases, not need. 

Los Ad gel < s has nearly as many wells us Ban Francisco, the i 
ity of them within 10 miles of the ocean, in a district 
miles long, and they yield much mure water, on the average, than in 
any other district, and are also used with more effeel in horticulture. 
A few of the wells on tin- higher ground have ceased to [overflow. 
San Bernardino has, at least, 400 wells— some persons say twice 
aw many — the surface at the lowest being 500 feet above the sea, and 
the highest about 800. Santa Clara County has 800 wells, and was 
tin- first t<> use them extensively in horticulture. There water is 
applied to the irrigation of strawberry fields, orchards and kitchen 
and ornamental gardens. The shallowest flowing artesian \\> 
in San Bernardino, some of them being only 16 feel deep. The cheap 
est one is at San Felipe, made l>y hammering a two inch pipe, with 
a sharp point, into the ground until it struck a flowing Bource. 

The ordinary cost ol a well, with good pipe 11 inches in diameter 
in favorable ground, is sf> ;| foot tor the first 100 feet (6 for the next 
100, $7 for the next 100, *b tor the next 100, |9 for the next 1 00. and 
beyond -100 feet the expenses vary greatly according to ci"cumstances; 
but 7 inch wells in Los Angel, s County have been bored to a depth of 
150 feet for $175. At least 4,600 artesian wells have been bond in 
California at a total cost of not less than $4,000,000, and notwith- 
standing many failures to strike flowing water, or even to reach water 
that approached the surface, the investment, as a whole, has been 
very profitable to the State The benefit might be much greater if 
the situation of the well, the depth to water, the elevation of the sur- 
lace, the strata passed through, and other main items ot information, 
had been placed on accessible record in every case, to as to furnish 
material for an exact and comprehensive view of the subject, which is 
increasing in interest as the value of water for horticulture obtains 
more recognition. The access to artesian water has the great advan- 
tage ot being free from the irregularit'es and uncertainties of the 
rainfall, and from the breaks and litigation that have troubled the 
people supplied from irrigation ditches. 

Analysis of Tulare Lake.— Prof. E. W. Hilgard of the State 
University, has made some valuable analytical examinations of the 
waters and soils of the State. His most important discovery is that 
the water of Tulare Luke, contains 85 grains of solid matter (mostly 
carbonate and chloride of soda) in a gallon ; so much as to unfit it for 
irrigation, though these salts might possibly be n-utrah/.ed by 
gypsum at an expense that could be borne. It is evident that a 
serious mistake has been made by many schemers, who proposed to 
get irrigation water from the lake. 

The lake has no outlet save for a few months in exceptionally wet 



70 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



seasons, when the surplus of its waters flows over the plain to the San 
Joaquin River. It covers an area of 1100 square miles, and is 30 feet 
deep before it begins to overflow. Some oi the adjacent plains contain 
much alkaline matter, which, as leached out Tsy the rains, has collected 
for thousands of y^ars in Tulare Lake, staying at the bottom by the 
natural tendency of gravitation. 

Common speech says that the lake overflows, and it might be pre- 
sumed that on such occasions the fresh water mixing _with the old 
stock of that in the lake would carry off much of the saline matter. 
But the overflow has never been accurately observed. King's River 
comes down from the Sierra Nevada and reaches the low ground along 
the middle line of the San Joaquin basin, twelve miles north of the 
lake, then turns southward and flows into the lake. When, however, 
the latter is unusually high, the water from King's River turns north- 
ward and runs to the San Joaquin, and the curreut, attributed to an 
overflow from the lake, may be nothing more than the water from 
King's River, which is a large stream in time of flood. If that sup- 
position be correct, then Tulare Lake loses no saline matter at such 
times. 

This discovery will put an end for some years to the agitation for 
irrigation from Tulare Lake, but is not final. If the alkali could 
not be neutralized, the lake might be pumped dry in September, 
and when once cleansed of its saline matter, would then fill up with 
fresh water, and keep sufficiently pure for irrigation for many years. 

In 1879, the water was unusually low, and dikes were thrown up in 
places to reclaim the low shores for purposes of cultivation. Doubts 
are entertained whether the soil is not like the water, too saline for 
agricultural uses. 

Analyses of Other Waters. — Prof. Hilgard examined the residue ob- 
tained from a spring in the San Bernardino Mountains, (yielding ac- 
cording to A. B. Farres, half a pound of solid matter to a gallon), and 
found it mostly common salt. He found that the water of a spring 
five miles northeast of Oroville contains 47 grains of solid matter to 
the gallon, mostly chloride and sulphate of soda. The Barker Spring 
of Kern County, contains 18 grains of solid matter to the gallon, 
mostly chloride and sulphate of soda. Water from an artesian well 
281 feet deep, near Cressy, Merced County, contains 312 grains of 
solid matter to the gallon, mostly chlorides and sulphates of sodium 
and magnesium. The water kills vegetation, but a quantitative an 
alysis, which has not been made, might prove its value for medicinpl 
purposes. The artesian well at the ATvarado sugar beet factory con- 
tains 23 grains of solid matter to the gallon, including 13 of sul 
phate of soda. An artesian well in Alameda, has a decided mineral 
character. The assumption that artesian water is always pure and 
suitable for culinary and irrigating purposes, is demolished by the 
discovery of the character of the Cressy and Alvarado waters. The 
proprietor of everv artesian well should ascertain how much solid 
matter it has to the gallon. If less than 10 grains, it will, in most 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 71 



cases, he accounted pure and excellent water ; if more than 20 grains, 
it must he accounted " mineral." 

We repeat our advice given heretofore, that the owners of mineral 
springs should have the waters analyzed, or, at least, examined. The 
first thiDg to he done is to evaporate half a gallon of the water in an 
I earthen vessel, scrape the deposit together, dry it thoroughly and 
weigh it. If there are not fifty grains to the gallon, or if the pre- 
dominant taste is that of common salt, the wattr has probably no 
value. The greater the amount of deposit, and the less like common 
salt, and the more fitter, the greater the probability of value. It 
was in consequence of our recommendation that the water of the 
iEtua Springs, iu Pope Valley, was analyzed, and the result was the 
discovery of medicinal properties like those of Ems, and the perma- 
nent future of the place as a health resort is assured. In no case 
should mineral waters be recommended by physicians for medicinal 
purposes until analyzed. The analytical tables of the most valuable 
medicinal springs of California are given in the Alta Almanac of 
1879. 

Analyses of Soils. — Alkaline soil from Overhiser's farm, in San 
Joaquin County, analyzed by Prof. Hilgard, when leached out, yielded 
one-quarter of one per cent, of solid matter, and of this, carbonate of 
soda made up half, chloride of soda a third, and sulphate of soda an 
eighth. This combination needs to be neutralized by gypsum. The 
j soil of the Curtis farm, in San Joaquin County, contains 3.73 per cent, 
of alkali, and of this three-fourths are sulphate of soda, one-sixth 
chloride of soda, and one-sixteenth carbonate of soda. This com- 
bination is not so injurious to vegetation as that at Overhiser's place, 
but needs gypsum as a neutralizer. Both salts contain more than 
one per cent, of valuable phosphates. A san y shell-marl, from near 
Antioch, contains 50 pt-r cent, of carbonate of "time, and could be ap- 
plied with advantage well on adode soils, 500 bushels to the acre. 
The dry bog soil from a tract on the east side of Tulare Lake, below 
high water mark, reclaimed by a levee is rich in lime, phosporic acid 
and potash, but contains nearly one per c^nt of soda, which must be 
neutralized by gypsum, or washed out by pure water. 

Manufactures. — The manufacturing establishments of California 
multiply very slowly, and some ignorant writers have declared that 
the reason is a dislike among our capitalists for a business promising 
such small profits as eigh: or ten per cent, a 'year. The true causes 
are the high prices of labor, coal, and land suitable for factories. The 
chief trouble is in the labor. Such factories as we have do not gen 
erally pay eight p^r cent., net on the capital invested ; shares or stocks 
in them are not sold in the open market, or accepted as collateral secu- 
rity by the banks for loans ; and about $45,000,000 on deposit in our 
savings banks do no pay six per cent., net. To assert that capital 
will not invest in safe m nurturing enterprises, whic_ would pay 
eight per cent., is to say that men would rather receive six than eight 
per cent, interest. 



72 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Copper. — The recent rise in the price of copper has stimulated min- 
ing for that metal in California. The most productive mine in the 
State is that of the San Francisco Company in Nevada county, twelve 
miles irom Wheatland. The ore is thrown into heaps of one thousand 
tons or more, mixed with wood, and burned slowly, for months, so ks 
to change the sulphuret and other forms of the ore into a sulphate, 
which is leached out in tanks and precipitati-d by iron, the precipitate 
containing from eighty five to ninety perce.t, of pure copper. The 
roasting does not usually convert more than half the copper into a 
sulphate, so after the leaching, the ore is thrown oat and exposed to 
the air for a year or more, and then leached again. In 1879, 250 tons 
of precipitate were obtained, and the production has probably been 
larger in 1880, as the works have a capacity to turn out 1,600 tons. 
The ore contains from six to ten per cent, of copper. Work has been 
resumed on the Newton copper mine at Copperopolis. 

Quicksilver. — Quicksilver mining was duller in 1880 than in 1879 
No new mines have been opened, and most of the old ones are not 
increasing their production. 

Nevada. — The past year has been one of serious depression for Ne- 
vada. No important new ore bodies have been found; extensive ex- 
plorations, conducted at an expense of about $10,000,000 on the Com 
stock lode have led to nothing save disappointment; and the prospect 
of dividends from the low-grade ores in the mines which have en- 
joyed bonanzas at various times are decreasing, at least so far as the 
near future is concerned. The railroad from Battle Mountain to 
Austin, 93 miles, has been completed, and work has been commenced 
on one to run from Carson City to Bodie. The last mentioned road 
would make a considerable region in California east of the Sierra more 
dependent than at present on Nevada for trade purposes. 

Oregon. — Oregon has enjoyed great prosperity in 1880, and has 
every reason to expect a continuance of the same good fortune for 
years to come A large part of her fertile area is yet unoccupied; her 
area is extensive; her population scant; her industries varied and 
profitable; her chief city, in proportion to size, is very wealthy and 
enterprising; she commands the outlet of an immense inland region; 
her railroads are rapidly advancing; her schools arejgood; and though 
her State Administration has made some serious blunders, her debt 
is small (about $380,000), and her taxes light. The Oregon Bailway 
and Navigation Company promises that Walla Walla shall be con- 
nected with Portland by rail before the close of 1881, and has already 
done a considerable part of the work and procured most of the iron 
needed for the completion. The salmon fisheries of the Columbia 
yielded 535,000 cases in 1880. 

Washington — Washington has shared the prosperity of Oregon. 
Many thousands of settlers have established themselves in the Basin 
of the Columbia under the influence of the promises made by the 
Northern Pacific Railroad Company that two hundred miles of track 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 73 



sh told be Inid from the mouth of Snake River in a northeastward di- 
rectiom, The iron for 170 miles of mud is lying on the bank of the 
Lower Colombia; iron for another LOO miles has been purchased, and 
grading haa been done for 150 miles; but only 86 miles of track were 
laid in 1880. The Company complains that it could not tiud transpor- 
tation for it-^ iron from the Lower Columbia to Wallula. What was i 
not done in 1880 can i>. j done in 1881. Eastern Washington is rich in 
natural resources, and will not be neglected. The Oregon Railway 
and Navigation Company announces its purpose to build a road | 
northeastward from Walla Walla, parallel with the Northern Pacific, I 
and about 80 miles further southward. The Seattle coalmines pro 
duced about 150,000 tons in 1850, a great increase over previous years, j 

Arizona. — The year 1880 has brought great prosperity to Arizona, I 
nearly doubling its population, giving it a considerable part of a con- j 
tinuous east and west iron track, soon to make a new connection j 
between the Atlantic and Pacific, and bringing promises entitled to 
respectful regard of a cross railroad to connect Guay mas with St. Louis, 
and of the completion of a transcontinental road on the thirty-fifth | 
parallel. Grading has been commenced at Guaynias, the entire route j 
from Albuquerque to Prescott has been located, grading on this last I 
named section has been commenced, and applications have been made 
to San Francisco and San Diego for terminal grounds. 

Utah — Gains rapidly by immigration. There are occasional com- 
plaints about p -lygamous marriages, but the Mormons generally under- 
8t. nd that persistence in the practice of their peculiar institution will 
lead to continuous trouble, in which they will be the chief sufferers, 
and public opinion among them inclines strongly to monogamy as a 
matter of prurience. The result is an increasing feeling of harmony 
between them and the Gentiles. So soon as the polygamy controversy 
shall be finally settled, the Territory will be admitted as a State, for 
it has now more than enough inhabitants to entitle it to a represent- 
ation in Congress. Its mines are rich and profitable. 

Idaho — Is gaining slowly, but will probably soon gain rapidly. The 
Northern Utah Railroad, built to bring the trade of Western Montana 
to Salt Lake City, has extended across the eastern part of I aho, 
which, however, has a poor soil, and no mines, so that very few set- 
tlers have come in. So soon, however, as the Northern Pacific reaches 
Idaho from the West, the Territory will feel a great stimulus, and 
population will pour in. 

STATE AND COUNTY FINANCES IN CALIFORNIA. 



The annual report of D. M. Kenfield, State Controller of California 
for the vear 1880, shows that the unpaid bonds of the State Govern- 
ment of California amount to $3,403,000 ; but of these $2,690,000 
belong to the State School and University Funds, and strictly consid- 
ered are not a part of the State debt. They are merely promises that 
the people shall raise by taxation certain sums for State educational 



74 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



institutions. The State bonds not owned by Departments of the State 
Government amount to $713,000, and that is the true State debt now ; 
and the annual interest on it is $43,485. The State has no floating 
debt. • 

The State University Fund has $952,500 in State bonds, and $287,- 
500 in the bonds of San Francisco, Oakland and Yuba, San Luis 
Obispo and Alameda counties, making a total of $1,240,000, which 
yield a yearly revenue of $74,327 90. Of this sum $25,000 were appro- 
priated to the construction of a library building in 1880. 

The State School Fund has $1,737,500 in State bonds, and $269,300 
in county bonds, which paid $129,301 interes' in the fit-cal year ending 
June 30th, 1880. The total receipts of the fund, including $1,324,119 
from taxes, were $1,681,902, and the total expenses of the State Gov- 
ernment are about $3,200,000. 

The total funded and floating debts of the counties amount to 
$11,432,579, of which San Francisco owes $4,055,000; Sacramento, 
$709,549; Los Angeles, $664,000; Santa Clara, $453,000; Napa, 
$366,000 ; Sonoma, $360,000 ; Alameda, $333,000 ; Marin, $340,000 ; 
San Joaquin, $294,000 ; El Dorado, $238,000 ; Santa Cruz $223,000 : 
Solano. $211,000 ; San Luis Obispo, $193,000 ; Mendocino, $181,000 ; 
Yuba, $171,000 ; Tulare, $155,000 ; Calaveras, $151,000 ; San Diego, 
$168,000 ; Merced, $145,000 ; Humboldt, $153,000 ; Tehama, $138,000 ; 
San Mateo, $128,000; Monterey. $134,000 ; Butte, $121,000, Kern, 
$104,000 ; Amador, Contra Costa, Inyo, Lake, Plumas, Santa Barbara, 
Shasta, Siskiyou, Stanislaus, Trinity and Yolo, ^ach owe between 
$50,000 and $100,000; and Alpine, Del Norte, Fresno. Lassen, Mari- 
posa, Modoc, Mono, Nevada, San Benito, San Bernardino, Sierra, 
Sutter, Tuolumne and Ventura, each less than $50,000. Placer has 
the solitary glory of not owing a cent. 

The State and county taxes for the fiscal year of 1879-80, were $3 
on the $100 in Alpine, Calaveras. Inyo, and Mariposa ; $2 90 in 
Mono, $2 95 in Sierra, $2 75 in Kern and Trinity, $2 60 in Calaveras, 
$2 55 in Lake and Lassen, $2 65 in Tuolumne; between $2 26 and 
$2 50 in Tulare, Tehama, Del Norte, Plumas, San Diego, and Shasta; 
between $2 01 and $2 25 in El Dorado, Humboldt, San Luis Obispo, 
Santa Barbara and Santa Cruz ; between $1 51 and $2 in Siskiyou, 
Solano, Sonoma, Stanislaus, Sutter, Ventura, San Benito, San Bernar- 
dino, San Mateo, Yolo, Butte, Colusa, Contra Costa, Fresno, Marin, 
Mendocino, Merced, Modoc, Monterey, Napa, Nevada, and San Fran 
cisco, and under $1 50 in Alameda, Los Angeles, Placer, Sacramento, 
San Joaquin and Santa Clara. These are the figures for the taxes 
that were paid in 1879 , those for the fiscal year 1880-81, are in most 
of the counties higher. Thus, the present State and county tax in 
San Francisco is $2 21, an increase of 21 i cents under the new Consti- 
tution. The amount of the tax depends largely on the relation of 
debt to taxable property, but in some of the smaller counties the tax 
would be high even if there were no debt. The exceptional freedom 
of Placer from debt is to be credited mainly to the fact that the Cen- 
tral Pacific Railroad runs for a long distance within the limits of the 



ALT A CA LIFORNIA ALMANAC 75 

: : | 

county, and adds nothing to the local expenses, while it pays a large 
tribute. 

The total assessed value of the taxable property of the State for the ' 
fiscal year 1879-80 was $549,000,000, including $217,000,000 in San 

Francisco, $44,000,000, in Alameda,$24,000,000 in Santa Clara, $18,000,- , 
000 each in San Joaquin and Sacramento, $10,000,000 in Los Angeles. 
$15,000,000 in Sonoma, $12,000,000 in Co usa, $10,000,000 each in 
Butte and Yolo, $9,000,000 in Solano, $8,000,000 in Napa, Marin and 
Contra Costa, $7,000,000 in Monterey and Nevada, $6,000,000 in Stan 
islaus, Santa Cruz, San Mat- o, Placer, Merced, Mendocino and Fresno, 
$5,000,000 in Humbol t and Tulare, $4,000,000 in Yuba, Sutter, Santa 
Barbara, San Luis Obispo and San Benito, $3,000,000 in Aina or, San 
Bernardino, San Diego, Siskiyou and Ventura, $2,000,000 in Calaveras, 
El Dorado, Lake, Mono, Plumas, Shasta and Tuolumne ; between 
$500,000 and $1,500,000 in Del Norte, Inyo, Lassen, Mariposa, Modoc, 
Sierra and Trinity, and under $500,000 in Alpine. In this paragraph 
we restrict ourselves to round numbers. 



THE DEPRESSION OF BUSINESS IN CALIFORNIA. 

Extent of Depression. — California has suffered for three years with 
a great depression in its business. The evideuces of a decline in the 
general prosperity are to be fouud in many departments ot industry 
traffic and finance. The Nevada Bank made a reduction of $7,000,- 
000 in its capital ; the Bank of California of S2,000,000 ; the Grangers' 
Bank of $1,500,000, and the London and San Francisco Bank of $900,- 
000. The National Gold and Trust Company's Bank, with a capital 
of $750,000, the Swiss- American Bank, with a capital of $1,000,000, 
the Bank of San Francisco, with a capital of $1,000,000 and 
the San Francisco agency of Rothschild and Co. have closed. No 
other banks have been opened: no bank has increased its capital. 
There has been a decrease of $13,150,000 in the capital of the com- 
mercial banks of San Francisco siuce July, 1877. 

The losses have been still greater in the amount of deposits. These 
increased steadily for 20 years before crazy Communism commenced 
its denunciation of capital on the sand-lot. Then the era of colhpses 
began. The following figures show the decline of deposits in the 
savings banks of California : 

June 30th, 1S7S $71,468,583 

Juue 30th, 1879 :^:*y,M* 

June 30th, 1SSU 47,711,374 

Of the $71,000,000 deposits in the savings banks in June, 1878, $11,- 
000,000 were in banks mat afterward suspended, but ther •• were as- 
sets to cover the greater part of this sum; so that the solvent deposits 
then in the savings banks amounted to at least $05,000,000. We 
have no figures at hand of the deposits in June, 1877, but the de- 
crease within the last three years and a half has been more than 
$20,000,000 in the saving banks deposits, the fund upon which the 
people depend mainly for the means to erect dwellings, build factor. 



70 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC 



ies and make those other improvements which give stimulus to en- 
terprise and profit to industry and commerce. Adding the $20,000,- 
000 to the $13,000,000 loss in the stock of the commercial banks, we 
have a reduction of $33,000,000 in the banking funds of the State. 
Before 1877 we gained about $5,000,000 annually and since Communism 
cropped out our yearly loss has been $10,000,000 of banking capital. 

The number of depositors of the San Francisco savings banks has 
decreased from 79,000 in 1877, to 50,000 in 1880. 

The amount of real estate sales in San Francisco was $24,000,000 
in 1876, and $10,000,000 in 1879, and the decline in the market value 
of real estate has been at least 20 per cent. 

One of the first-olass hotels has closed, and the rents of the large 
boarding-houses have fallen much because of the decrease in the 
number of tourists, visitors and boarders. 

Before 1878, San Francisco built about 1,000 houses annually. For 
the last three years the number has probably not exceeded 300 or 400. 

There is a considerable decline in the population, but of this we 
have no precise measure. 

Barometer of Business. — At least once a month a summary of the 
settlements made through the Clearing-Houses of the leading Ameri- 
can cities is telegraphed throughout the Union, to let the people know 
the amount of the mercantile transactions. But this measure of commer- 
cial activity and general prosperity, while approximately correct and 
trustworthy elsewhere, has little value in San Francisco, because thf- 
stock market is here far more prominent, and subject to much 
greater fluctuations, relatively, than elsewhere. The best barometer 
of business in California, or, at least, the one most accessible, is 
the relation between the mortgages of real estate and the releases of 
mortgages. In prosperous seasons there is a great demand for money ; 
many obtain loans on mortgage, and those who have obtained loans 
postpone the payment as long as possible. In hard times, on the 
other hand, there is little profit in enterprise, or demand for loans, and 
every creditor does his best to pay up. The ibllowing.figures show 
the statistics, in round numbers, of sales, mortgages, and releases, as 
drawn from the records of our city by the editor of the Meal Estate 
Circular, from 1867 to 1879, inclusive : 

Year. Sales. Mortgages. Releases. 

1867 $17,600,000 810,000,000 $5,800,000 

1868 27,200,000 11,500,000 5,400,000 

1869 29,900,000 13,300,000 5,900,000 

1870 15,600,000 13,400,000 8,500,000 

1871 12,700.000 11,500,000 9,400,000 

1872 13,100.000 10,100,000 8,100.000 

1873 35,900,000 17,200,000 6,100,000 

1874 23,900,000 16,900,000 11,200,000 

1875 35,900,000 16.900,000 9,700,000 

1876 24,100,000 17.000,000 11,800,000 

1877 18,500,000 24,000,000 13.500,000 

1878 14,600,000 15,600,000 15,000,000 

1879 :.. 10,300,000 9,600,000 10,800,000 



ALTA CALIFOliNIA ALMANAC. 77 



We see here that in the most prosperous years, such as 1867, 18G8, 
1873, 1874 and 1875, the mortgages were about double the releases in 
amount : and from the time when the Communistic disturbances 
began, there was a rapid change in the relation until 1879, when the 
releases exceeded the mortgages, and in the first ten months of 1880 
the proportion was about the same as in 1879. This revulsion from 
i roaperity to adversity is the chief result of the political folly miscalled 
the Workingmen's movement. 

The busiuess of savings banks keeps pace with the mortgages and 
releases. So long as business was prosperous and enterprise active, 
from 1859 to 1877, there was a steady increase of deposits, but soon 
after Kearney began his pernicious agitation, building and grading 
were arrested, confidence was injured and the people began to with 
draw their money from the banks, some to spend it in supporting 
themselves or their relatives, and others to take it to remote place' or 
to invest it in Federal bonds, in which latter form it is as inaccessible 
to the ordinary busiuess of the State, as if it had been carried to the 
other side of the continent. 

Stocks. — Some Persons sincerely assert that the present depres- 
sion in business in California is caused by the losses in mining 
speculation. Hundreds of men worth $100,000 or more, five years 
ago, in or near San Fraucisco, are now worth less than $5000 ; thou 
sands ^that had property salable at from $10,000 to $100,000, have 
now to depend for their support on their professional or manual labor; 
and all these losses are traceable, directly and indirectly, to the decline 
in mining stocks. The people who bought pictares, statuary, dia- 
monds, 2:40 horses, and frescoed mansions, while stocks were up, are 
not buying now, and the dealers in all these articles say the trouble 
is all in stocks. 

But they see only one side of it. The dullness ir. the demand for 
diamonds, pictures and frescoes does not affect general business. 
Industry may thrive in a country where diamonds are unknown. 
This depression began in September, 1877, but if it had been caused 
by losses in mining speculations, it should have commenced in Janu- 
ary, 1875, when the stock panic commenced. In that month, the 
market value of the Comstock mines was $275,000,000, and in May, 
1877, it had fallen to $:j 1, 000,000 ; so that in little more than two, 
years San Francisco had lost about $200,000,000, allowing $40,000,000 
tor the losses on such Comstock shares as were held elsewhere. There 
was no arrest of building, no check to street improvement, no decrease 
of population, no emigration of money and rich men, no decrease of 
banking capital, no loss of confidence, nothing like the features of 
the last three years, in which there has been a further decline of $17,- 
000,000, or less than one-tenth of the total loss. 

In 1876, before depression began, the stock sales amounted to $325,- 
000,000, and in 1879 to only $70,000,000 ; yet in the latter year general 
business suffered three-fold greater loss than in the former. Again we 
must remember that the recent decline in mining stocks is not the 
first one in Sa n Fr ancisco. There was a grand collapse in 1863. when 



78 ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



the miners dug through the bonanza of the Gould and Curry and 
Savage mires. Shares that had sold for $6000 each, fell in a few months 
down to $1,500, and in the course of a few years to $150 ; and shares 
that had been in demand at $3,000, $2,000, and $1,000, fell relatively as 
much. The total depreciation amounted to many millions, and was, 
perhaps, nearly as great in proportion to the wealth then accumulated 
in the city as was that in the mining stock panic of 1875. But there 
was no depression in general business. Real estate rose steadily, pop- 
ulation increased, foreign capital poured in, houses were built in great 
number, aud nobody imagined that the complete collapse of a few 
hundred speculators who had counted themselves wealthy, was any 
serious detriment to the community at large. We look in vain for 
proof, or even any important evidence, that the depression has been 
caused by the mining mania. 

Chinese. — The Chinese theory implies that the extent of the evil is 
proportioned to the number of Celestials in our State, but we know 
that the increase has been slow and insignificant since the panic in 
1877; whereas previously, and especially during the periods of the 
greatest industrial and commercial activity, it was large and rapid. 
The excess of arrivals from China over the departures from 1870 to 
1876, inclusive, was 50,000, or more than 7,000 annually, on the aver- 
age; while the excess fmm January 1, 1877, to June 30, 1880, was 
4,176, or an annual average of 1,200. From January 1st, 1879, to 
June 30th, 1880, the average increase of Chinese residents, as shown 
by the Custom House statistics, is less than fifty a month, not suf- 
ficient to counterbalance the deaths and migration to the Eastern 
States. These figures do not sustain the theory that the increase of 
Chinese immigration is the cause of the evil, but would rather justify 
a suspicion that the decrease might be. We see nothing, however, 
in the coincidence of the decline of the Celestial rush for California 
in the depression to prove any causal connection between the two 
The common argument that California has been impoverished by the 
exportation of the money earned by the Chinamen will not bear the 
test of examination. Anti-Coolie orators have assumed that the Ce- 
lestials, on an average, earn seventy-five cents, spend ten cents, and 
save sixty- five cents per day for shipment to their native land. This 
estimate, however, is not based on any statistics, and is highly im- 
probable to any person familiar with the habits of the Chinamen. They 
spend much money and lose much time in travelling ; great numbers 
are unemployed for a considerable part of the year ; they pay high 
rents ; they patronize the street cars, their theatre and their gam- 
bling-houses liberally ; many of them go. to China once in five years ; 
and when flush with money, they are far from living an abstemious 
life. 

Chinese labor is denounced as cheap, but the cheapness exists only 
as compared with other labor in California — not as compared 
with labor in the Eastern States. The Chinese farm-hand here gets 
more than the white agricultural laborer in Illinois, send fifty per 
cent, more than the ne to in North Carolina ; and the Chinese factorv 



.1 1 T. 1 C I I.I FORM. I.I/. M. 1 XAV- 79 



operative in San Francisco gets about as much as the white operative j 
in Philadelphia. It certainly does not cause a depression in San Fran 
cisco to have shirts and shoes made by yellow men, securing a rev | 
enue from land, buildings, machinery and materials, owned and man- ' 
aged here. Neither would it relieve depression to close up our man- j 
ufact wring establishments until an uncertain time, perhaps in the re- 
mote future when ;vhite labor would be abundant, and cheap enough j 
to permit the reopening of the factories. Our white boys and girls 
are excluded from occupation much more by the competition of white 
labor in the East than by that of Chinamen in California. Indeed, if \ 
they would work here at the rates paid in Pennsylvania and New ' 
York, and could be trusted, they would soon find enough to do. 

The presence of the Chinamen is undoubtedly a misfortune to a 
small class of the white people, and the immense majority cast against 
Chinese immigration at the State election in 18T9 (154,038 against and 
888 lor,) shows that it is unwelcome to all. But when we consider 
the vast amount of railroad and other indispensable work that they 
have done, and that they are still doing, and that the labor could not 
have been done (at a price that we could afford to pay) by any other 
obtainable class of people, we must come to the conclusion that, how i 
ever undesirable they may be as compared with white immigrants, 
we could not afford to expel them suddenly, nor have we the least 
reason to charge them with the responsibility for the depression of 
our business. It is the nature of fools to throw the blame of their 
failures on others, and when nations or States commit political follies 
under incompetent leaders, one of the most difficult tasks in the 
world is to convince the majority of their blunder. 

We have been told by those who claim to know that the Chinamen, 
I as a class, do n it save one-fifth of their earnings. Savings seldom 
j exceed 10 per cent, in any large class of white people, and probably 
do not exceed one-fifth among the Chinese. Their theatres, their gam- 
bling houses, their opium-smoking, and their mutual aid in times of 
adversity, are not suggestive of universal stinginess Taxes, rents, 
water rates, gas rates, traveling expenses and enforced idleness are 
heavy drains on them. The example of a shirt factory enables us to 
see the profit of Chinese labor, and yet we import shirts from the 
East. 

San Francisco pays $6 for the material of a dozen shirts, and sends : 
25 cents to China as the savings of the Chinese shirt maker from his 
labor, keeping for herself $4 Jo for rents, provisions, taxes, interest 
on investment, white labor and profits. Of course Chinamen would 
not be employed by white men. if the latter did not make a profit, 
thus helping to enrich the city. It would be folly for California to 
take $4 25 from her pocket, and trive it to New York for the sake of 
preventing '25 cents going to China. That is what the Kearnyites 
demand. The dismissal of the Chinese should be gradual, commenc 
Ing with those branches in which white labor can be employed with a 
profit, and gradually extending as business permits. 



80 ALTA CALIEORN1A ALMANAC. 



The main question in reference to the Chinese, for California, is not 
whether they carry away a larger sum, but whether our white 
population, taken together, make a profit on their work. The 
answer to this must be in the affirmative. Ask the farmer, the 
orchardist, the vineyardist, the sheepman, the railr ad builder, 
the manufacturer, the keeper of the country hotel, the boarding 
keeper, the farmer's wife, and the housewife in the city. The more 
intelligent and candid among them will invariably answer that, 
though they wish the Chinese could be replaced by an equal number 
of white laboring people, under the circumstances, the Chinamen are 
indispensable, and their sudden expulsion would throw business into 
great confusion, if not compel a complete stoppage. Without the 
Chinaman there would not be laborers to do the work, and until their 
places should be supplied by immigration, the wages would rise to 
prohibitory rates. The employers, rather than submit would stop 
their machinery, let their lands lie fallow, and close their houses. The 
amount *of money which the Chinamen send to Asia is much ess 
impoitant for us than our dependence on distant parts of the world for 
the articles which we consume. If, with their direct or indirect 
assistance, we can profitably cultivate land which would other- 
wise 'lie idle : if by paying $5 to China for work on cigars, shoes, 
slippers, woollen shirts, and similar products, we can save $20 from 
going to New York, we are benefitting our community. So long as 
the present feeling against the Mongolians prevails among us, we 
may be certain that they will seldom be employed without yielding a 
good profit to the white man, and the aggregate of the profits from, 
perhaps, 60,000 of them in the State, amounts to an important sum. 

Sand Lot Methods. — The " Sand-Lot " took the name of the " Work- 
ingmen's Party," assuming to be the only true advocate of the inter- 
ests of the labring class — that is, of a great majority of the people. 
This claim was accepted in good faith by many followers of Kearney, 
but, by since deserting him, they have admitted their mistake. Instead 
of being a bt-mefit to the multitude, the Workingrnen's party has 
inflicted great losses on the poor as well as on the rich, and the prin- 
ciples and the leaders of the movement have lost their hold on the 
favor of the rabble. 

Besides claiming to be pre-eminently the advocate of the poor men 
while Republicans and Democrats were represented as the tools of 
corrupt corporations and oppressive capital), the Workin gin ens' State 
Convention, held on the 5th day of June, 1879, in this city, adopted a 
resolution declaring that " We utterly repudiate all spirit of commun- 
ism and agrarianism." With equal truth the professional thief might 
pretend a supreme regard for vested rights. Kearney was nothing 
but a Communist from the moment when he began to attract general 
attention ; and the source of his strength lay in the communistic excite- 
ment which he stimulated among the ignorant. The question whether 
he and his followers are Commnr.iRts, is to be decided by the general 
tenor of their language and cc □ luct at their political meetir.gs during 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC, 81 



a period of three years, and not by a hypocritical platform adopted for 
the purpose of deliberate deception. 

On the 21st of September, 1877, Kearney, in a public speech, told 
his followers that they ought to arm and drill without delay, and 
within a year they might have 20,000 disciplined men with which to 
overcome the police. The Sand-Lot hated the law, and longed for the 
means of resisting interference with schemes of violence. On another 
occasion Kearney requested every man within the sound of his voice 
to get a musket and 100 rounds of ammunition, promising to lead 
them to the City Hall and " clean out the police." He denoun ed the 
State Militia and Federal troops, and predicted that the Workingmen's 
volunteers would be strong enough to whip them all. This advice 
was given and taken in earnest. The Communists armed, met and 
drilled. It was reported that three regiments had been organized. 
On the 28th of November, after he had been elected Mayor of San 
Francisco, I. S. Kalloch presented a banner to the " First Regiment of 
the Workingmen's California Volunteers," which had been organized 
for the purpose of resisting the law, and would not submit to the su- 
pervision and control of the State military authorities. If there had 
been no other evidence of communistic spirit and purposes this mili- 
tary organization under Kearney's influence would have been conclu- 
sive proof. 

But there is an abundance of other evidence. On one occasion 
Kearney, in a public speech, read a description of the burning of 
Moscow, tor the purpose of suggesting the treatment that San Fran- 
cisco might expect ii it refused to submit to his dictation. Another 
speaker, J. Gr. Day, predicted that in a certain contingency the hood- 
lums would " deluge this city in blood, if not entirely destroy it," and 
that labor must be liberated from the oppression of capital, (the 
average wages of mechanics in the leading building trades are 
$18 50 per week in San Francisco, $12 50 in New York), even if the 
industries of the State were paralyzed and its cities devastated. One 
German Communist called the attention of his associates to the fact 
that if they could get possession of Alcatraz and turn its guns on the 
city, the capitalists would pay $50,000,000 rather than have the city 
destroyed. When a bill was under consideration in the Legislature 
to authorize the Central Pacific Railroad to collect fares between sta- 
tions within the limits of Oakland, one speaker said that if it should 
pass, the people ought to tear up the track and burn the ties. These 
expressions were attributed to speakers at public meetings in the 
reports of the daily press, and so far as we know, were never contra 
dieted. 

Neither were the Communistic proceedings limited to the military 
organizations and the talk about burning the city and filling it with 
carnage. Ther-: was specific talk about hanging offensive individuals. 
On one occasion the Kearneyites proposed to carry a gallows in the 
procession, but they found it would be dangerous. Kearney repeat 
edly exhibited a piece of rope, an i .called it " the unwritten plank of 
my platform.'' When Senator Bones, who had been nominated and 



82 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



elected in Alameda county by the Workingmen's party, voted in a 
way which Kearney did not like, though not in violation of any spe- 
cific pledge, Kearney proposed to hang him, and an Oakland meeting 
of Workingmen, in March, 1878, unanimously passed a resolution de 
claring that " if the said Bones refuses to resign, we deem it a duty 
of the Workingmen of Alameda county to enforce the unwritten 
plank of the Kearney platform." 

These are only a few of the proofs of the Communistic, incendiary 
and brutal feelings of the Kearney party. The leaders of the move- 
ment may have believed that their measures would be beneficial to 
the people ; and the murders of the reign of terror and the tortures 
of the Inquisition may have been committed with similar motives. 
"Wilkes Booth, Bavaillac andHartmann are detestable characters, even 
if they were misled by political and sectarian fanaticism. 

Fortunately, Kearney lacked the courage to lead his followers to 
bloodshed and many of them had property which they were anxious 
to protect, so that he could never count on a very large support in 
case of a riot. 

The Communistic sentiments prevailed extensively among the 
Grangers, who became Kearney's political allies. At the State 
Grange meeting, in October, 1878, after Kearney had advised the 
Sand-lot to arm and drill, a resolution was passed, urging " a closer 
organization" " of the 50,000 farmers and 70,000 mechanics and la- 
boring men of California." Mr. Pilkington, the advocate of that 
resolution, was chosen State lecturer of the Grange, and in that ca- 
pacity labored throughout California to make converts for the W. P. 
C, which recognized his services by nominating him for delegate to 
the Constitutional Convention. 

This party, so Communistic in its methods of procedure, so unfit for 
power in the ignoranc • and brutality of its leaders, and in the multi- 
tude of its followers, came very near getting control of California, and 
actually succeeded in forcing a Communistic Constitution on the 
State. It was a great danger from the first, and abun antly justified 
the arrest of enterprise, tr e withdrawal of capital and the loss of con- 
fidence which were apparent early in 1878, and which, under the in- 
fluence of the New Constitution, still prevail after the dissolution of 
the Communistic party. The welfare of the State now demands the 
repeal of the New Constitution. 

Sand Lot Measures. — We now come to the consideration of the Sand- 
Lot measures. First was the immediate and unconditional expulsion 
of the Chinamen. The watchword of the party was, " The Chinese 
Must Go ; " and though the words " at once " were omitted, they were 
meant. The people generally of California never . looked on the 
Celestials as desirable immigrants or neighbors, and expressed their 
feelings in the most unequivocal manner at the State election on the 
3d of September, 1879, when they cast 154,638 ballots against, and 
only 883 for Chinese immigration. Those feelings, however, did not 
and do not prevent the people from giving employment directly and 
indirectly to Chinamen ; and those classes who are the bitterest in 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



denouncing the Asiatics, give them the most patronage. The condi- 
tions of manufacturing industry and household service are such in 
California that the sudden expulsion of the 60,000 Chinamen now in 
the State would inevitably cause great pecuniary losses, as well as 
social disturbances. But even if there had been no business difficulties 
in the way of driving out the Asiatics at brief notice, the national 
credit, under the requirements of international law forbade such an 
expulsion of people, whose only offences were that they were not 
white and could not earn so much as some other classes. 

Su' ordinate to this measure of expelling the Chinaman were a mul- 
titude of minor measures of prohibiting the Chinamen from working 
for corporations, or for the State, County or Town Governments, from 
buying or leasing land, from obtaining license, from doing business 
without a license, and if they must have licenses, of doing business 
without paying much higher license than that levied on other people. 

Next to the Celestials, the chief objects of Sand-Lot animosity were 
the corporations, including the banking, underwriting, railroad steam- 
ship, irrigating, mining, mining ditch, municipal water, and gas com 
panies. These were represented as forming a coalition that controlled 
the Legislature, the Executive and Judicial branches of the Govern- 
ment, made thetaxe high, exempted the property of the rich from a 
fair share of taxation, placed the main burden on the multitude, and 
depressed the wages of labor. For the purpose of correcting these 
imaginary evils, the Sand-Lot demanded that Corporations should be 
subjected to double or treble taxation, that persons who should parti- 
cipate in the original organization of any corporation may be made 
responsible, without any limitation of time, for any fraud or loss that 
might occur in the business of the company after they had sold out 
all interest in its stock ; that every Director of a corporation should 
be responsible to the full extent of his fortune for any fraud commit- 
ted by a servant, even if the Director voted against the employment 
of the dishonest servant ; that no cor. oration should hold for more 
than five years any real estate except such as may be necessary for car- 
rying on its business ; and any company incorporated elsewhere doing 
business in California should have an office here with books showing 
the names of its shareholders and the transfer of its shares. 

The Government should prohibit, or, at least discourage agree- 
ments under which the laborer is to be paid, in proportion to the 
amount of work done. All jobbing contracts wrong laborers, by 
compelling them to engage in a demoralizing competition. The pay 
should always be proportionate to the number of days' work, and 
the Government should shorten the number of hours as much as pos- 
sible, so as to diminish the competition among the employed, and in- 
crease it among the employers. All Government work should be 
paid by the day; and if the State cannot directly furnish profitable 
employment to the convicts in the State Prison, they should be al- 
lowed to spend the'r time in idleness. Their labor should never be let 
out by contract. 



84 ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



The Governnient'should provide for tlie employment of all laborers 
in times of business depression, paying $2 a day for eight hours work 
to the unskilled man, and more in the proportion of the current rates, 
to mechanics — the funds to be obtained by general taxation. The 
law should recognize public demands for the hanging of capitalits, 
for the burning of towns, and for resistance to the police and troops, 
and the discussion, of plans for such measures, as proper exercises of 
free speech. The free school system should be destroyed, and, as a 
first step toward it, the High Schools should be deprived of assistance 
from the State School Fund. The Acts of the Legislature should have 
no validity until ratified by the people at the ballot-box. The Legis- 
lature should confiscate the excess of all great fortunes, and of all 
great estates in land, for the general benefit. 

These are the most notable measures demanded by the Sand-lot. 
Every one is contrary to well-established principles of national econo- 
my, and worthy of the ignorance, vulgarity an l Communistic violence 
of Kearney and his followers. The Sand-lot is dead, but some of its 
measures above stated have been embodied in the New Constitution, 
which hangs like a mill-stone on the neck of California. 



GOVERNMENT OF CALIFORNIA- 



State Executive Officers- 

K. means Republican ; D. Democrat ; W. Workingmen ; N. C. Mem- 
ber of the New Constitution Party ; Gr. Greenbacker. 

Governor — Geo. C. Perkins, R. 

Lieutenant Governor— John Mansfield, R. 

Secretary of Sta p ?e — Daniel M. Burns, R. 

Controller — Daniel M. Kenfield, R. 

Treasurer— John Well, R. 

Attorney-General — Augustus L. Hart, R. 

Surveyor-General— James W. Shanklin, R. 

Clerk of Supreme Court— Frank W. Gross, R. 

Superintendent of Public Instruction — F. M. Campbell, R. 

Justices of the Supreme Court— R. F. Morrison, C. J., W. & D. ; 
M. H. Myrick, R. ; S. B. McK~e, W. & D. : E. M. Ross, W. & D. ; J. R. 
Sharpenstein, W. & D.; E. W. McKinstry, W. & D.; J. D. Thornton, 
W. &D. 

Legislature. 

The following is a list Of the members of the Legislature of Cali- 
fornia : 

Senators. 

First District (1) — San Diego and San Bernardino — J. W. Satter- 
white, D. 

Second District (1)— Los Angeles— J. P. West, W. and N. C. 

Third District (I)— Ventura, Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo — 
Warren Chase, W. 



ALTA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 85 



Fourth District (1) — Fresno, Tulare, Kern, Mono and Inyo — Dr. 
Chester Ro well, R. 

Fifth District (1) — Mariposa, Merced and Stanislaus — D. M. Pool, D. 

Sixth District (1)— Monterey, San Benito and Santa Cruz— W. J. 
Hill, W., N. 0. and R. 

Seventh District (2)— Santa Clara— Geo. F. Baker, R., J. Zuck, R. 

Eighth District (1) — San Francisco and San Mateo, Jas. Ryrnes, R. 

Ninth District (2)— San Francisco— -C. C. Conger, W.; W. W. 
Tray lor, R. 

Tenth District (2) — San Francisco — Paul Neumann, R. ; John H. 
Dickinson, R. 

Eleventh District (2)— San Francisco— Thomas Kane, W. ; T. K. 
Nelson, W. 

Twelfth District (2)— San Francisco — Jos. C. Gorman, W. ; Martin 
Kelly, W. 

Thirteenth District (2)— San Francisco— John S. Enos, W.j Theo. 
H. Hittell, R. 

Fourteenth District (2)— Alameda, S. G. Nye, R. ; E. H. Pardee, R. 

Fifteenth District (1)— Contra Costa and Marin — W. H. Sears, R. 

Sixteenth District (2) — San Joaquin and Amador — B. F. Langford, 
N. 0. and D. ; San Joaquin county, A. T. Hudson, R. 

Seventeenth District (1) — Calaveras and Tuolumne — R. M. Lam- 
son, R. 

Eighteenth District (2) — Sacramento — Grove L. Johnson, R. ; Wm. 
Johnston, R. 

Nineteenth District (2)— Solano and Yolo— J. H. Harlan, W., N. C. 
and D.; Solano county, J. F. Wendell, R. 

Twentieth District (1) — Napa, Lake and Sonoma — W. L. Anderson, 
N. C. 

Twenty-first District (1)— Sonoma— W. W. Moreland, D. 

Twenty-second District (1)— Placer— S. B.Burt, R. 

Twenty-Third District (1)— El Dorado and Alpine— W. H. Brown, R. 

Twenty-fourth District (2)— Sierra and Nevada— B. J. Watson, R.; 
Nevada county, Wm. George, R. 

Twenty-fifth District (1)— Yuba and Sutter— E. A. Davis, R. 

Twenty-sixth District (1) — Butte, Plumas and Lassen — W. A. 
Cheney, R. 

Twenty-seventh District (1) — Del Norte, Humboldt and Mendocino — 
Pierce H. Ryan, D. 

Twenty-eighth District (1) — Siskiyou, Modoc, Trinity and Shasta — 
A. B. Carlock, R. 

Twenty-ninth District (1) — Colusa and Tehama — B. B. Glasscock, D. 

Recapitulation.— Republicans, 23; Democrats, 5; N. C, 1 ; W. 7 ; 
W. and N. C, 1 ; W, N. C. and R., 1 ; N. C. and D., 1 ; W., N. C. and 
D., 1. Total. 40. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Assemblymen. 

Alameda — W. W. Cameron, ft.; L. B. Edwards, E.; Valentine 
Alviso. 

Amador — Chapman Warkins, R.; C. B. Swift, D. 

Butte— Joseph C. Werstbaugher, R.; Leom L>. Freer, D, 

Contra Costa — Joseph P. Jones, R. 

Calaveras — J. B. Reddick, R. 

Colusa and Tehama — W. P. Mathews, D. 

Del Norte~W. B. Mason, R. 

El Dorado — Thomas Fraser, R 

El Dorado and Alpine — Cyrus Coleman, R. 

Fresno— C. J. Griffith, D. 

Humboldt— W. G. Mudgett, D. and Gr. 

Inyo and Mono — Joseph Wasson, R. 

Los. Angeles— J. F. Crank, R., R. F. Del Valle, D. 

Lake — H. J. Cornpton, D. 

Mariposa and Merced — J. W. Bost, D. 

Marin — C. L. Estee, R. 

Mendocino — William Holden, D. 

Monterey — Harris Kilburn, R. 

Napa — Chancellor Harston, R. 

Nevada— W. D. Long, R., J. B. Patterson, R , Thomas Nein, R. 

Placer— J.E.Hale, R, 

Plumas and Lassen — W. W. Kellogg, D. 

San Francisco — Ninth District — Timothy O'Connor, D., John D. 
Siebe, R., Horace Gr Piatt, D., F. J. Pinder, D. Tenth District— W. B. 
May, R„ David McClure, R., Ira G. Hoitt, R., Oscar Lewis, R. Elev- 
enth District — Edward Keating D., Dennis Gearv, D., J. J. McCallion, 
D., J. G. Noonan, D. Twelfth District— M. Lane, D., John Burns, D., 
W. J. Gavigan, J. H. Giltnore. D. Thirteenth District— J. W. McDonald, 
D., P. Garrity, D., H. J. Jackson, D., M. B. Howard, D. 

Sacramento— J. N. Young, R., W. C. Van Fleet, R., J. E. Baker, R. 

San Diego— E. W. Hendricks, R. 

San Bernardino — H. M. Streeter, R. 

San Luis Obispo, P. W. Murphy, D. 

Santa Barbara and Ventura — Milton Wasson, R. 

Santa Clara — John Reynolds, R., Milus H, Gray, R„ Christian 
Wentz, R. 

Santa Cruz, J. F. CunniDgham, d. 

San Benito — J. H. Mathews, D. 

San Joaquin — R. Sargeant, R., C. C. Paulk, R., John Patterson, R. 

San Mateo— C. N. Ftlton, R. 

Sierra — George Woods, R. 

Siskiyou and Modoc — John Daggett, D. 

Stanisiaus — L. C. Branch, D. 

Solano— E. E. Leake, D., F. A. Leach, R. 

Sonoma — E. L. Whipple, D., Edward C. Hinshaw, D., James Sam- 
uels, D. 



ALIA CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 87 



Sutter— A. L. Chandler, R. 

Trinity aud Sha9ta — John McMurray, D. 

Tulare and Kern — R. E. Arrick, D. 

Tuolumne, T. C. Binnev, D. 

Yolo— F. E. Baker, D. 

Yuba— W. H. Parks, R., J. P. Brown, R. 

Summary— Republicans, 42 , Democrats, 



FEDERAL MILITARY FORCES ON THE PACIFIC 
SLOPE. 



Division of the Pacific and Department of California. 

Maj -Uen. Irvin McDowell, Commanding, Presidio of San Francisco. 

Personal Staff. — Capt. B. B. Keeler, Aid-de-Camp; Capt. J. H. 
Coster, Aid-de-Camp. 

Division and Deft. Staff —Col. J. C. Kelton, Ass't Adj.-Gen. ; 
Col. Edmund Schriver, Inspector General; Lt.-Col. Rufus Saxton, 
Chief Quartermaster ; Col. C. L. Kilburn, Chief Commissary ; Col. 
Charles Sutherland, Medical Director; Lt.-Col. C. C. Keeney, Surgeon 
U. S. Army ; Col. Samuel Woods, Chief Paymaster ; Capt. W. A. Jones, 
Engineer Ufficer. 

Officers in San Francisco not on Staff.— Lt.-Col. G. E. Cooper, 
Ass't Medical Purveyor; Capt. H. Johnson, Medical Storekeeper; 
Lt.-Col. C. S. Stewart, Engineer Harbor Fortifications; Lt.-Col. R. S. 
Williamson, Engineer 12th Light House District ; Lt.-Col. G. H. Men 
dell, Engineer Harbor Fortifications; 1st. Lt. A. H. Payson, Corps of 
Engineers. 

Other Officers of Staff Corps. — Maj. G. L. Gillespie, Engineer 
River Defenses, Portland, Oregon; Capt. W. H. Rexford, O. S. K., 
Benicia Arsenal, Cal ; 1st Lt. M. W. Lyon, Ord. Dept., A. A. Q. M. and 
A. 0. S., Beuicia Arsenal, Cal. 

POSTS. — The following is a list of Posts in the Department of Cali- 
fornia, with the commanding officers and troops at each : 

Alcatraz Island. — Maj. L. L. Livingston, Cos. E & L, 4th Art. 

Angel Island.— Col. A. V. Kautz, Hdqrs. & Cos. C, F & H, 8th Inf. 

Benicia Arsenal. — Lt.-Col. J. McAllister, Detachment of Ord- 
nance. 

Benicia Barracks.— Lt.-Col. J. D. Wiikins, Cos. B & K, 8th Inf. 

Fort BiDWELL.—Capt. C. M. Bailey, Co. C, 1st Cav., and Co. D, 
8th Inf. 

Fort Gaston.— Capt. E. B. Savage, Co. E, 8th Inf. 

Fort Halleck, Sey— Major G. B. Sanford, Co. 1, 1st Cav., & Co. 
G, 8th Inf. 

Fort McDermit, Nev. — Capt. R. F. Bernard, Co. G, 1st Cav. 

Fort Point, Cal. — Capt. John Egan, Cos. A, C & K, 4th Art. 

Fort Point San Jose. — Capt. J. B. Campbell, Co. F, 4th Art. 

Presidio of San Francisco. — Lt.-Col. G. P. Andrews, Hdqrs., 
Batt'y B & Cos. D & H, 4th Art. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



^Department of the Columbia. 

Brig. Gen. 0. Howard, Bvt. Maj. -Gen., (Commanding, Vancouver 
Barracks, W. T. 

Personal Staff.— 1st Lt. J. A. Sladen, Aid-de-Camp ; 1st Lt. C. E. 
S. Wood, Aii de-Camp; 2d Lt. Guy Howard, Aid de-Canip. 

Department Staff.— Maj. O. D. Greene, Ass't Adj.-Gen.; Maj. E. 
C. Mason, A. A, Inspector General ; Maj. C. G. Sawtelle, Chief Quar- 
termaster ; Capt. S. F. Cushing, Chief Commissary ; Surgeon E. I. 
Baily, Medical Director; Maj. J. H. Eaton, Chief Paymas'er; Capt. J. 
A. Kress, Ordnance Officer ; 1st. Lt. T. W. Symons, Engineer Officer. 

Posts. — The following is a list of Posts in this Department, with 
the commanding officers and troops at each : 

Boise Barracks, I. T.— Capt. W. B. Parnell, Co. P, 1st Cav., & Co. 
A, 2d Inf. 

Camp Howard, I. T.— Capt. Sam. McKeever, Co. K, 2d Inf. 

Camp near Mouth of Spokane River, W. T. — Lt.-Col, H. C. 
Merriam, Cos. E, D, F & I, 2d Inf. 

Fort Canbv, W. T.— Major W. M. Graham, Co. G, 4th Art., & Co. 
H, 2d Inf. 

Fort Coeur d'Alene, I. T.— Col. Frank Wheaton, Hdqrs. & Co's 
A, B & G, 2d Inf. 

Fort Cohille, W. T.— Major G. G. Huntt, Co. H, 1st Cav., & Cos. 
C & H, 2d Inf. 

Fort Klamath, Oregon.— Capt. S. G. Whipple, Co. L, 1st Cav., & 
Co. .C, 2d Inf. 

Fort Lapwai, I. T.— Lt. Col. Alex. Chambers, Co. E, 1st Cav., & 
Co. I, 2d Inf. 

Fort Stevens, Oregon— -apt. C. B. Throckmorton, Co. M, 4th Art. 

Fort Townsend, W. T.— Capt. Robt. Pollock, Cos. B & D, 2d Inf. 

Fort Walla Walla, W. T.— Lt.-Col. J. W. Forsyth, Hdqrs. & 
Cos. A, B, D, K & M, 1st Cav. 

Vancouver Arsenal, W. T. — Capt. J. A. Kress, Detachment of 
Ordnance. 

Vancouver Barracks, W. T. — Col. H. A. Morrow, Hdqrs. & Cos. 
E, F, G & K, 2d Inf. 



Department of Arizona. 

Col. O. K. Willcox, Bvt. Maj .-Gen., Commanding, Whipple Bar- 
racks, A. T. 

Personal Staff.— 1st Lt. H. L. Haskell, Aid-de Camp ; 2d Lt. E. 
F. Willcox, Aid-de-Camp. 

Department Staff. — Maj. S. N. Benjamin, Ass't Adj.-Gen ; Maj. 
James Biddle, A. A. Inspector General; Capt. E. B. Grimes, Chief 
Quartermaster; Capt. C. P. Eagan, Chief Commissary; Maj. W. H. 
Johnston, Chief Paymaster ; Surgeon A. K. Smith, Medical Director ; 
1st Lt. C. F. Palfrey, Engineer Officer. 

Posts. — The following is a list of Posts in this Department, with 
the commanding officers and troops at each : 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



Camp Huachuca, A. T.— Capt. S. M. Whitside, Co. B, 6th Cav... & 
Co. D, Indian Scouts. 

Camp J. A. Rucker, A. T.— Capt. A. B. MacGowan, Co. D, 12th Inf. 

Camp Thomas, A. T.— Maj. David Perry, Co. G, 6th Cav.. & Co. H, 
2d Inf. 

Fort Apache. A. T— Maj M. A. Cochran, Cos. D & E, 6th Cav., 
Cos. C & E, 12th Inf., and Co. A, Indian Scouts 

Fort Bowie, A. T.— Capt. C. B. McLellan, Cos. C & L, 6th Cav., & 
Co. C, Indian Scouts. 

Fort Grant, A. T.— Maj. A. K. Arnold, Cos. A & F, 6th Cav., & 
Co. I, 12th Inf. 

Fort Lowell, A. T.— Col. E. A. Carr, Hdqrs. & Co. M, 6th Cav. 

Fort McDowell. A. T.— Capt. A. R. Chattee, Co. I, 6th Cav., Co. G, 
12th Inf., & Co. B, Indian Scouts. 

Fort Mojave, A. T.— Capt. Thos Byrne, Co. F, 12th Inf. 

Fort Verde, A. T.— Lt.-Col. W. R. Price, Cos. H & K, 6th Cav., & 
Co. K, 12th Inf. 

Fort Yuma, Cal.— Capt. A. T. Smith, Co. I, 8th Inf. 

San Diego Barracks, Cal.— Capt. G. M. Brayton, Co. A, 8th Inf. 

Whipple Barracks, A. T.— Lt.-Col. R. S. La Motte, Hdqrs. & Cos. 
A & B, 12th Inf. 

OFFICERS ATTACHED TO MARE ISLAND NAVY 
YARD AND STATION. 



Commodore E. R. Colhoun, Commandant ; Captain P. C. Johnson, 
Captain of the Yard ; Lieutenant C. S. Richman, Aid to Commandant. 

Yards and Docks. — Captain P. C. Johnson in charge of Depart- 
ment. 

Navigation. — Captain John Irwin. 

Equipment. — Commander Robert Boyd. 

Ordnance. — Commander A F. Cooke. 

Construction. — Assistant Naval Constructor, J. Feaster. 

Steam Engineering.— Chief Engineer, M. Fletcher; Chief Engi 
neer George F. Kutz in charge of Stores. 

Provisions and Clothing — Paymaster George Cochran. 

Pay Office.— Paymaster H G. Colby. 

Medicine and Surgery. — Medical Director George Peck in charge 
of Hospital ; Surgeon George W. Woods, Surgeon of the Yard. 

Marine Barracks. — Major Chas. Heywood, commanding. 

Receiving Ship " Independence." — Captain Wm. P. McCann, 
commanding ; Lieutenant Commander, J. B. Coghlan, Executive 
Officer. 

Navy Pay Office, Cor. Washington and Sansome, S. F. — Pay 
Director, James Fulton. 

Naval Rendezvous, Cor. Washington and Sansome, S. F. — 
Commander L. Kempff, commanding. 

The U. S. Naval Force on the Pacific Station is commanded by Rear 
Admiral T. H. Stevens, and comprises the following vessels, with their 



90 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 



commanding: officers, viz.: U.S. Flagship "Pensacola," Captain B. 
B. Taylor; U. S. S. "Lackawanna," i'aptain Jas. H. Gilles ; U. S. S. 
"Alaska," Captain Geo. Brown: XJ. S. S. "Marion," Commander F. 
M. Bunce ; U. S. S. " Adams," Commander J. A. Howell; and U. S. 
Storeship, " Onward," Lieutenant Commander T. M. Gardner. 



VOTE OF CALIFORNIA. 



The following is the vote of California for the highest electors on 
the Republican and Democratic tickets : 



Counties. 
Alameda 


Garfield. 

5,897 

06 

1,345 


Hancock. 

3,894 

41 

1,411 

1,832 

1,137 

1,657 

1,010 

297 

1,520 

1,133 

735 

274 

661 

677 

301 

2,853 

661 

598 

1,313 

736 

463 

1,205 
1,082 
2,029 
1,416 
645 
2.817 


Counties. 
San Benito 


Garfield. 
.... 429 
760 


Hancock. 
646 
751 




San Diego 

San Francisco 

SaD Joaquin 

San Luis Obispo... 
San Mateo 


743 

19,085 

2,568 

8311 

760 




Butte 

Calaveras 

Colusa 


1,814 

1,157 

882 


■ 21,471 

2,409 

729 

720 




263 


717 




1,419 

613 

1,490 

321 

4H3 

454 






2,821 

1,102 

877 

559 

900 


Fresno 

Humboldt... 

Inyo 


Santa Cruz 

Shasta 

Sierra 


1,236 

868 

997 
800 








1,959 




Sonoma 


2,290 






2,914 

761 


1,161 








591 






Tehama 

Trinity 

Tulare 

Tuolumne 


868 

464 

917 

922 

.... 599 

...... 1,256 

1,165 

80,348 


954 


Mendocino 

Merced 


969 

546 


458 
1.3.W 
1,001 

522 




913 

1,260 

1,199 

2,211 

1,643 


Monterey 

Napa 

Nevada 

Placer 


Yolo 

Yuba 

Totals 


1,374 

1,185 

80,442 


Sacramento 


3,794 





The following was the total vote for each of the Republican and Dem 
ocratic electors, viz.: Republican; — Miller, 80,282 ; Edgerton, 80,348 ; 
Bauer, 80,281 ; P^ox, 80,229 ; McKaig, 80,245 ; Bard, 80,253. Democrats 
—Wallace, 80,426; Terry, 79.885 ; Shorb, 80,420 ; Brown, 80,413 ; Hen- 
ley, 80,428 ; Del Valle, 80,442. 

Terry, Democratic elector, was defeated, and Edgerton, Republican, 
elected. The highest Greenback elector got 3,381 votes ; the highest 
Prohibitionist, 61 ; the highest Anti-Masonic, 6. 

The following is the vote for Congressmen, viz.: First District : Horace 
Davis, 19,493 ; W. S. Rosecrans, 21,205 ; S. Maybeil, 683 ; scattering, 5. 
Second District : H. F. Page, 22,038 ; J. R. Glascock, 18,859 ; B. K. Low, 
113; Benjamin Todd, 182 ; scattering, 1. Third District: George A. 
Knight, 20,494 ; C. P. Berry, 21,743 ; A. Mussleman, 85 ; B. K. Low, 2 ; 
A. J. Clark, z5 ; W. O. Howell, 142 ; W. C. Howell, 11 ; Otis Smith, 5 ; 
scattering, 4. Fourth District : R. Pacheco, 17,768 ; W. Leach, 17,577; 
J. F. Godfrey, 3,436 ; H. W. Wheeler, 13 ; scattering, 12. 



ALT A CALIFORNIA ALMANAC. 91 


PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION OF 1880. 


The following table shows the popular and electoral votes for Presi- 
dent of the United States in 1880 The parties which had tickets for 
the Presidency were the Republican, Democratic, Greenback, Prohibi- 
tion, and Ami- Masonic. 


States. 


POPULAR VOTE. 


electoral 

VOTE. 

' ReJT i~Dcm. s 


Kap. 


Dem (,.... ,. ; 


AI.tiM 


f 

3. 




O 

p 

P" 


Dow 

Weaver.... 

Hancock... 


f 




p 

a 

2. 


n 

p 
a 



a 








"322 


i 

3 
6 

21 

15 
11 
5 

7 


10 

6 i 
5 J 

:::::::: 
3 
4 
n 

i2 

8 1 
8 

§ 

15 

3 

9 








California 


10,378 80,411 2,783 
27,450 24,647 1,433 

67,1173 64,417 869 







Connecticut 


405 




7 


Florida 

Georgia 

Illinois - 

Indiana 

Iowa 


23,632 

52.652 
318,716 
232,164 

183.904 


27,922 


LO ,522 481 ... 
277.321 26,358 443 

225,522 12.9S6 

105,845 32,327 159 


' ' 153 
' ' '433 

" 142 


"i07 

' "38 
35 

" 218 


Kentucky 


li>5 'iv,- lis, 707 ll.-.s 257 


Maine 


74,1139' 65.171 4.40s 
78,5151 93,706 139 
165,19-) 111,960 4,548 
185,195 131,301. 34^95 
93,903 53.316' 3,267 


93 


Massachusetts 


' 682 

942 
286 


2 


117 
320 
2113 
677 

■'..'.* 

425 

T,896 

' 1,447 

'" 26 


13 
11 

5 

3 

5 
3-5 


Minnesota. 


Missouri 

Nebraska 


153.5S7 
54,979 
10,44-5 
44.S52 
120.555 
555,514 
115,616 
375.04* 
20,618 
444,704 
18,195 
57. H47 
98,760 
53,200 
45,0111 
83,634 


208.589 35,135 







11,215 

40.70! 5-28 
122.565 2.617 
534.511 12,373 
124,204 1.136 
340,831 6,456 

19,950 215 
107,428 20,668 

112.036 541 

130. 3U 5,465 

18,182 1,212 
128.158 Sill 
37,391 9,079 

114,649 7,986 


" 180 

191 

1,517 

'2,6 i 6 

' l",939 
20 


' "75 
"44 


New Hampshire 


New York... 




10 




22 
3 

29 
4 

5 

io 


7 

12 
8 

ii 

5 














Vermont 




105 


' ' '399 
""19 
8,084 




""69 
9,799 


91 
1,072 




144.4 




To'al 






214 
59 


155 




76S 












Explanation. — Th 
election were made up 


3 tallies of the census 
before some of the figu 
should be made for min 


tnd of the Presidential 
•es had been examined 
or errors. 




ed ? " •' Why," said Pe 
sr and not 'nuff for two. 


te, " 


jigote 


dis kn 


3 wing 



BLAKE, BOBBINS & CO. 

Importers and Jobbers of 

BOOK, NEWS, WRITING and WRAPPING 

Paper Bags, 

Card Stock, 

Straw Paper, 

Straw and Binders' Boards, 

Black and Colored Inks, 

Bronzes, Etc., Etc, 

516 Sacramento and 519 Commercial Streets, 

san francisco. 
New York Office, 18 Vesey Street. 



FRANCIS BLAKE " ) 

JAMES MOFFITT, { San Francisco. JAMES W. TOWNE, 

CHARLES F. ROBBINS, ) New York, 



C. P. Sheffield. N. W. Spaulding. J. Patterson. 

PACIFIC SAW MANUFACTURING CO. 




1 7 and 19 Front Street, San Francisco. 



SAWS OF EVERY DESCRIPTION ON HAND & MADE TO ORDER. 
Agents for C. B. Paul's Files. 

WW Repairing of all kinds done at short notice. _^U 

LAHOLIY & MICHAELS, 

WHOLESALE DRUGGISTS, 

IMPORTERS OF PURE 

Trwch, Ingtfsh mi 6@n&an Dnags, 

FINE ESSENTIAL OILS, CHEMICALS, PERFUMERY, 

ETC., ETC. 

N. E. CORNER OF FRONT AND PINE STREETS, 

1AM !F51Air©2i<S@. 



Henry Payot. Isaac Upham. 

Payot, Upham & Co, 

Wholesale and Importing 

STATIOUEES! 
BOOKSELLERS. 

COMMERCIAL PRINTERS 

— AND — 

204 SANSOME STREET, 

Near Pine, SAN FRANCISCO. 

THE BOSS BEER? 

— is — 

fit f itiiiifiiiaf gti 1 1 

IT CAN BE OBTAINED 

AT THE 

539 CALIFORNIA STREET, 

SAX FRANCISCO. 
ERNST LUESMAN - - - Proprietor. 



WHOLESALE AND RETAIL. 
FAMILIES SUPPLIED. 



ESTABLISHED 1846. 



Jailg JWta folif mh 

One Year, in advance $8 00 

Six Months, in advance 4 00 

Three Months, in advance— * 2 00 




Contains Original and Selected Matter, 
Together with Full and Reliable 

MAEKET EEPOETS, 



SUBSCRIPTION: 

One Year $2 75 

Six Months 1 50 

In Gold Coin or equivalent. 
Single Copies 10 cents. 



PACIFIC 

Mail Steamship Oompanj; 

«. 

impany will sail FROM SAX FRANl 
during Hows: 

FBOM WHARF, COR. FIRST AND BRANNAN STS. 
HOUR OF DEPARTURE, 2 P. M. 



For YOKOHAMA & HONGKONG 

AS ADVERTISED. 

ting at Yokohama with ilie Steamers of tl: n Co. 

for HIOGO, NAGASAKI and AHANQHAE. 

For SYDNEY & AUCKLAND, via HONOLULU 

JANUARY 15th. 
And Every fourth Saturday Thereafter. 



For IV got York and Panama 

On the 4th and 19th of 'Every Month 

Taking] 1 Freight for Mexican, Central American and South 

Americi n Torts; fori . m and Southampton; (or 

St. Nazaire, and for Hamburg, Bremen and Vntwerp. 

WILLIAMS, DIMOND & CO., Agents. 

San Francisco, January 



fil TAIIiOii* 

BRANCH OF NEW YORK. 

Being our own importers, we are able to guarantee and give the 
REAL article at such prices as defy competition. We sell Goods to 
suit the Banker, Merchant and Clerk. Gentlemen, before calling 
elsewhere, will do well to call and inspect my 



DO NOT NEGLECT TO SEE THE 



EHifltiVBIO H 



[VI 



Call and see the ELECTRIC LIGHT at NICOLL'S by which 
colors and quality may be seen as clear at NIGHT as at NOONDAY. . 



)RDEK: 



Pants, 


from 


$5 


Suits, 


- 


20 


Overcoats, - 


15 


Dress 


Goats, - 


20 




Genuine 6x 




TO ORDEK: 

Black Doeskin 
Pants - from $8 
White Vests, - 3 
Fancy Vests . - 6 
Beaver Suits, - 60 



Inglish. Cords for Hunting 

Samples with Instructions for self- 
measurement sent FREE. 
^ SMALL STOCK OF UNCALLED FOR GOODS 
PANTS, VESTS, COATS, OVERCOATS 
AND ULSTERS AT IMMENSE 
REDUCTION. 
OTSLY WHITE JL^AJBOIfc 

Employed, and none but Experienced and First-class Cutters. 

Nicoll The Tailor's Grand Tailoring Emporium, 

727 MARKET STREET, SAN FRANCISCO.